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Intralipid and IVIG Therapy in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction

by Dr. Geoffrey Sher on April 10, 2016

There is an ever growing realization, recognition, and acceptance of the fact that uterine immunologic dysfunction can lead to immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID) with “unexplained” infertility, IVF failure, and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Although there are many factors that contribute to such implantation dysfunction, in the final analysis it is activated, “functional” uterine natural killer cells (NKa) in association with cytotoxic-T cells (CTL), which, through the production of cytotoxic cytokines (see below), damage the “root system” (trophoblast) of the embryo, causing the pregnancy either to be immediately rejected or so compromising placentation that early pregnancy loss occurs. Both immunoglobulin-G (IVIG) and intralipid (IL) therapy given in combination with corticosteroids (e.g. dexamethasone, prednisone, and prednisolone) are used to effectively reduce/down-regulate activated NK cells.

NK cells reach the uterus from the woman’s bone marrow, early in the menstrual cycle, as so called “parental” or “progenitor” cells. There, these early NK cells proliferate under the effect of estrogen. Only upon being exposed to progesterone do they begin to propagate “functional” NK cells that release cytokines and promote implantation. The concentration of functional NK cells in the endometrium is maximal about 7 days after exposure to natural(endogenous), or synthetic (exogenous) progesterone ….i.e. corresponding to the time the time when the embryo implants into the uterine lining (endometrium).

Functional uterine natural killer (NK) cells as well as T-helper cells are immune cells that frequent the uterine lining. They produce growth factors known as cytokines that regulate orderly implantation of the embryo and facilitate placentation (development of a functional placenta, the baby’s life line).There are two varieties of uterine cytokines: a) TH-2 (humoral) cytokines that promote permeation of the uterine wall by the embryo’s trophoblast (“root system and, b) TH-1 (cellular) cytokines that oppose trophoblastic proliferation and permeation of the uterine wall by culling interstitial trophoblastic cells. Orderly implantation and formation of a functional placenta (lifeline of the baby) requires that TH-1 and TH2 activity be in equilibrium

There are two categories of immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID) linked to NK cell activation (NKa).

  • Autoimmune IID. Here, there is often a personal or family history of autoimmune conditions such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Lupus Erythematosus, and thyroid autoimmune activity (e.g. Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism) etc. Autoimmune IID also occurs in about one third of cases of endometriosis, regardless of severity.
  • Alloimmune IID. Here uterine NK cell activation results from uterine exposure to an embryo derived through fertilization of an egg by a spermatozoon which shares certain genetic (HLA/DQ alpha)characteristics with that of the mother or embryo recipient.

In both autoimmune and alloimmune IID, the end point is an excessive NKa/CTL, TH-1 release that damages the embryos trophoblast, resulting in failed implantation or early pregnancy loss.

It is important to bear in mind that measurement of the concentration of blood NK cells has little or no relevance when it comes to assessing NK cell activation (NKa). Rather, it is the degree of NK cell activation (cytotoxicity) that matters. In fact, there are certain conditions (such as with endometriosis) in which the NK cell blood concentration is normal or well below normal and NK cell activation is markedly increased.

There are several methods by which NK cell activation (cytotoxicity) can be assessed in the laboratory. Methods such as immunohistochemical assessment of uterine NK cells and/or TH-1 and TH-2 cytokines have been used with some success. However, use of the K-562 target cell test remains the gold standard. With this test, NK cells are isolated from the woman’s blood using Flow Cytometry and are incubated in the presence of specific “target cells”. These are then incubated together. The percentage (%) of “target cells” killed through exposure to NKa/CTL-TH1 cytokines is then quantified.

Currently, there are less than a half dozen Reproductive Immunology Reference Laboratories in the U.S.A that are capable of performing the K-562 target cell test reliably. I have for 20 + years been working with Reproductive Immunology Associates (RIA) in Van Nuys, CA and preferentially recommend them to my patients.  

There exists a pervasive but blatant misconception on the part of many, that the addition of IL/IVIG can have an immediate down-regulatory effect on NK cell activity. This has established a demand that Reproductive Immunology Reference Laboratories report on NK cell activity before and following exposure to IVIG and/or IL.  However, the fact is that activated “functional” NK cells (NKa) cannot be deactivated in the laboratory. Effective down-regulation of activated NK cells can only be adequately accomplished if their activated “progenitor/parental” NK cells are first down-regulated. Thereupon once these down-regulated “precursor” NK cells are exposed to progesterone, they will begin spawning normal and functional NK cells, which takes about 10-14 days. It follows that to assess for a therapeutic response to IVIG/IL therapy would require that the patient first be treated (10-14 days prior to embryo transfer) and thereupon, about 2 weeks later, be retested. While at 1st glance this might seem to be a reasonable approach, in reality it would be of little clinical benefit because even if blood were to be drawn 10 -14 days after IL/IVIG treatment it would require an additional 10 days to receive results from the laboratory, by which time it would be far too late to be of practical advantage.

Neither IVIG nor IL is capable of significantly suppressing already activated “functional NK cells”. For this to happen, the IL/IVIG would have to down-regulate progenitor (parent) NK cell” activity. Thus, it should be infused several days prior to ovulation or progesterone administration so that the down-regulated “progenitor/precursor” NK cells” can propagate a sufficient number of normally regulated “functional NK cell” to be present at the implantation site 7 days later.

It is very regrettable that so many patients are being denied the ability to go from “infertility to family” simply because (for whatever reason) so many reproductive specialists refuse to embrace the role of immunologic factors in the genesis of intractable reproductive dysfunction. Hopefully this will change, and the sooner the better.

 

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  • Nina M - August 17, 2018 reply

    I’m 41 years old. My AMH is >9. I have never had any autoimmune or other medical issues. Had a chemical pregnancy after my first hcg trigger 1 year ago (age 40). Had second hcg trigger a couple months later, got pregnant with slow rising hcg, then began to double, sac with pole, miscarried at 7.5 weeks. 1st retrieval december 2017-34 retrieved, 24 mature, 20 embryos, 4 pgd normal 2 mosaic. Estrogen reached over 7000 but no severe OHSS. 1st FET february, 10 day beta 288, 48 hours later 88 I miscarry. All hemotology work up normal, lining at least 12-15mm at the time of transfer. Went to see Jonathan Scher, th1/2 ratio normal NK 19%. Gave me intralipid 3-4 days before transfer, and 5 mg prednisone twice a day for 2 weeks and asa and lovenox. FET fails to implant. Just did fresh IVF cycle, long coasting protocol, estrogen still close to 7000, 15 embryos, 2 fresh day 5 perfect looking blasts failed to implant, only did asa and lovenox after transfer. Have 1 more PGD normal from this cycle, so 3 total and now 4 mosaics that could possibly be a go. Periods have gotten unbearably heavy, go through more than 1 large pack of pads/ day for 1-2 days. Considering laporoscopy and scared to do transfers on remaining embies. Please advise, I would love to do a consultation with you .

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - August 17, 2018 reply

    In your case, it is important for you and your husband to also be checked for an alloimmune genotypic match (DQa/HLA before doing an FET because this could profoundly influence treatment.
    The implantation process begins six or seven days after fertilization of the egg. At this time, specialized embryonic cells (i.e., the trophoblast), which later becomes the placenta; begin growing into the uterine lining. When the trophoblast and the uterine lining meet, they, along with Immune cells in the lining, become involved in a “cross talk” through mutual exchange of hormone-like substances called cytokines. Because of this complex immunologic interplay, the uterus is able to foster the embryo’s successful growth. Thus, from the very earliest stage of implantation the trophoblast establishes a foundation for the future nutritional, hormonal and respiratory interchange between mother and baby. In this manner, the interactive process of implantation is not only central to survival in early pregnancy but also to the quality of life after birth.

    Considering its importance, it is not surprising that failure of proper function of this immunologic interaction during implantation has been implicated as a cause of recurrent miscarriage, late pregnancy fetal loss, IVF failure, and infertility. A partial list of immunologic factors that may be involved in these situations includes anti-phospholipid antibodies (APA), antithyroid antibodies (ATA), and most importantly activation of uterine natural killer cells (NKa). Presently, these immunologic markers in the blood can be only adequately measured by a handful of highly specialized reproductive immunology laboratories in the United States. I personally use Reproductive Immunology Associates in Van Nuys, CA or Reprosource in Boston, MA.

    The Central role of Natural Killer cells: After ovulation and during early pregnancy, NK cells comprise more than 70% of the immune cell population of the uterine lining. NK cells produce a variety of local hormones known cytokines. Uncontrolled, excessive release of certain cytokines (i.e. TH-1 cytokines) is highly toxic to the trophoblast (“root system”) of the embryo” leading to their programmed death (apoptosis) and, subsequently to failed or compromised/dysfunctional implantation. In the following situations NK cells become activated, and start to produce an excess of TH-1 cytokines:

    • Autoimmune Implantation Dysfunction: This is most commonly seen in association with a personal or family history of autoimmune diseases such as ith conditions such as Rheumatoid arthritis, hypothyroidism endometriosis and Lupus Erythematosus, Scleroderma, Dermatomyositis etc. It is also encountered in one third of women who have endometriosis (regardless of its severity), and in cases of “unexplained infertility” as well as with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).
    • Alloimmune implantation dysfunction where the male and female partners share specific genetic (DQ-alpha and/or HLA) similarities. This is commonly seen in cases of RPL and in cases of secondary infertility

    Activated NK cells (NKa) can be detected through the K-562 target cell blood test and (more recently) through uterine biopsy for TH-1 cytokine activity. Treatment involves selective use of Intralipid (IL) or immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy combined with oral steroids, initiated more 10-14 days prior to embryo transfer and in most cases of alloimmune implantation dysfunction, the transfer of a single blastocyst at a time.

    I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.
    • The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
    • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
    • IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
    • The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
    • Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
    • Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF:
    • The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 1-Background
    • Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
    • Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 3-Treatment
    • Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
    • Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management:(Case Report
    • Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
    • Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; How it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
    • Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
    • Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas
    • Should IVF Treatment Cycles be provided uninterrupted or be Conducted in 7-12 Pre-scheduled “Batches” per Year
    • A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
    • How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
    • Endometriosis and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) and IVF
    • Endometriosis and Infertility: Why IVF Rather than IUI or Surgery Should be the Treatment of Choice.
    • Endometriosis and Infertility: The Influence of Age and Severity on Treatment Options
    • Early -Endometriosis-related Infertility: Ovulation Induction (with or without Intrauterine Insemination) and Reproductive Surgery Versus IVF
    • Treating Ovarian Endometriomas with Sclerotherapy.
    • Effect of Advanced Endometriosis with Endometriotic cysts (Endometriomas) on IVF Outcome & Treatment Options.
    • Deciding Between Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).
    • Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): Who Needs it & who Does Not: Pro’s &
    • Induction of Ovulation With Clomiphene Citrate: Mode of Action, Indications, Benefits, Limitations and Contraindications for its ue
    • Clomiphene Induction of Ovulation: Its Use and Misuse!

    If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com. You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
    Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

    Geoffrey Sher MD

  • mrmr - May 2, 2018 reply

    thank you doctor for answering our questions, i had 8 failed ivf with only one chemical pregnancy, i did th1 th2 ratio in hope of finding a reason but it came back normal. i did the test 3rd day of my period after 3 months of zoladex 3.6 injection followed by 17 day of oral contraceptives. could these drugs affect the results of the test?

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - May 2, 2018 reply

    No, alas they would not!

    There is an ever growing realization, recognition and acceptance of the fact that uterine immunologic dysfunction can lead to immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID) with “unexplained infertility”, “unexplained IVF failure” and “recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)”. Although many factors that contribute to such implantation dysfunction, in the final analysis it is activated “functional” uterine natural killer cells (NKa) in association with cytotoxic-T cells (CTL), which through the production of cytotoxic cytokines (see below) damage the “root system” (trophoblast) of the embryo causing the pregnancy either to be immediately rejected, or so compromising placentation that early pregnancy loss occurs. Both immunoglobulin-G (IVIG) and intralipid (IL) therapy given in combination with corticosteroids (e.g. dexamethasone, prednisone, and prednisolone) are used to effectively reduce/down-regulate activated NK cells.

    NK cells” reach the uterus from the woman’s bone marrow, early in the menstrual cycle, as so called “parental” or “progenitor” cells. There these early NK cells proliferate under the effect of estrogens. Only upon being exposed to progesterone do they begin to propagate “functional” NK cells that release cytokines and promote implantation. The concentration of functional NK cells in the endometrium is maximal about 7 days after exposure to natural(endogenous), or synthetic (exogenous) progesterone ….i.e. corresponding to the time the time when the embryo implants into the uterine lining (endometrium).

    Functional uterine natural killer (NK) cells as well as T-helper cells are immune cells that frequent the uterine lining. They produce growth factors known as cytokines that regulate orderly implantation of the embryo and facilitate placentation (development of a functional placenta……the baby’s life line).There are of two varieties of uterine cytokines: a) TH-2 (humoral) cytokines that promote permeation of the uterine wall by the embryo’s trophoblast (“root system and, b) TH-1 (cellular) cytokines that oppose trophoblastic proliferation and permeation of the uterine wall by culling interstitial trophoblastic cells. Orderly implantation and formation of a functional placenta (lifeline of the baby) requires that TH-1 and TH2 activity be in equilibrium

    There are two categories of immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID) linked to NK cell activation (NKa).
    • Autoimmune IID. Here, there is often a personal or family history of autoimmune conditions such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Lupus Erythematosus, and thyroid autoimmune activity (e.g. Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism) etc. Autoimmune IID also occurs in about one third of cases of endometriosis (regardless of its severity).
    • Alloimmune IID. Here uterine NK cell activation results from uterine exposure to an embryo derived through fertilization of an egg by a spermatozoon which shares certain genetic (HLA/DQ alpha)characteristics with that of the mother or embryo recipient.

    In both autoimmune and alloimmune IID, the end point is excessive NKa/CTL, TH-1 release that damages the embryos trophoblast, resulting in failed implantation or early pregnancy loss.

    It is important to bear in mind that measurement of the concentration of blood NK cells has little or no relevance when it comes to assessing NK cell activation (NKa). Rather it is the degree of NK cell activation (cytotoxicity) that matters. In fact there are certain conditions (such as with endometriosis) where the NK cell blood concentrations is normal or well below normal and NK cell activation is markedly increased.

    There are several methods by which NK cell activation (cytotoxicity) can be assessed in the laboratory. Methods such as immunohistochemical assessment of uterine NK cells and/or TH-1 and TH-2 cytokines have been used with some success. However, use of the K-562 target cell test remains the gold standard. With this test, NK cells are isolated from the woman’s blood using Flow Cytometry and are incubated in the presence of specific “target cells”. These are then incubated together. The percentage (%) of “target cells” killed through exposure to NKa/CTL-TH1 cytokines is then quantified.

    Currently, there are less than a half dozen Reproductive Immunology Reference Laboratories in the U.S.A that are capable of performing the K-562 Target cell test reliably. I have for 20 + years been working with Reproductive Immunology Associates (RIA) in Van Nuys, CA and preferentially recommend them to my patients.

    There exist a pervasive but blatant misconception on the part of many, that the addition of IL/IVIG can have an immediate down-regulatory effect on NK cell activity. This has established a demand that Reproductive Immunology Reference Laboratories report on NK cell activity before and following exposure to IVIG and/or IL. However, the fact is that activated “functional” NK cells (NKa) cannot be deactivated in the laboratory. Effective down-regulation of activated NK cells can only be adequately accomplished if their activated “progenitor/parental” NK cells are first down-regulated. Thereupon once these down-regulated “precursor” NK cells are exposed to progesterone, they will begin spawning normal and functional NK cells. This process takes about 10-14 days. It follows that to assess for a therapeutic response to IVIG/IL therapy would require that the patient first be treated (10-14 days prior to embryo transfer) and thereupon, about 2 weeks later, be retested. While at 1st glance this might seem to be a reasonable approach, it is in reality would be of little clinical benefit because even if blood were to be drawn 10 -14 days after IL/IVIG treatment it would require an additional 10 days to receive results from the laboratory and by that time it would be far too late to be of practical advantage.

    Neither IVIG nor IL is capable of significantly suppressing already activated “functional NK cells”. For this to happen, the IL/IVIG would have to down-regulate progenitor (parent) NK cell” activity. Thus it should be infused several days prior to ovulation or progesterone administration so that the down-regulated “progenitor/precursor” NK cells” can propagate a sufficient number of normally regulated “functional NK cell” to be present at the implantation site 7 days later.

    It is very regrettable that so many patients are being denied the ability to go from “infertility to family” simply because (for whatever reason) so many reproductive specialists refuse to embrace the role of immunologic factors in the genesis of intractable reproductive dysfunction. Hopefully this will change …and the sooner the better.

    Geoff Sher
    PH: 800-780-7437

    mrmr - May 3, 2018 reply

    thank you doctor i just got the details of the test i will write it to you if there is any comment
    TNF α 194.29
    IFN γ 139.12
    IL-4 19.02
    IL-10 8.64
    TNF-α/IL-4 10.22
    TNF-α/IL-10 22.5
    IFN-γ /IL-4 7.32
    IFN-γ /IL-10 16.11

    DO YOU SEE ANY ABNORMALITY IN THERE?

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - May 3, 2018 reply

    I do not know how the test was done. Was it a uterine biopsy or blood test. If the latter. it is not of much value (in my opinion) and what are the normal values for the lab that did the testing?

    Geoff Sher

    mrmr - May 4, 2018

    yes it is blood test. the normal ranges are
    TNF-α/IL-4 up to 11.2
    TNF-α/IL-10 up to 30.6
    IFN-γ /IL-4 up to 10.3
    IFN-γ /IL-10 up to 20.5
    does it only matter the ratios or what?

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - May 4, 2018

    I really place no value on blood test cytokine results. Cytokines need to be measured from endometrial (uterine) biopsy material to be of value…in my opinion! The K-562 target cell test is the only blood test for NK activity that I place value in.

    Sorry

    Geoff Sher

  • Zu - April 10, 2018 reply

    I did abTh1/Th2 cytokines immunoassay and it is positive so they suggest proganf 1 mg twice daily . I need to know your opinion regarding safety And when should I start and stop this medication

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - April 10, 2018 reply

    In my opinion, that is unlikely to be sufficient!

    Implantation dysfunction is a very common (often overlooked) cause of “unexplained” IVF failure. This is especially the case in young ovulating women who have normal ovarian reserve and have fertile partners. Failure to identify, typify, and address such issues is, in my opinion, an unfortunate and relatively common cause of repeated IVF failure in such women. Common sense dictates that if ultrasound guided embryo transfer is performed competently and yet repeated IVF attempts fail to propagate a viable pregnancy, implantation dysfunction must be seriously considered. Yet ID is probably the most overlooked factor. The most common causes of implantation dysfunction are:
    a. A“ thin uterine lining”
    b. A uterus with surface lesions in the cavity (polyps, fibroids, scar tissue)
    c. Immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID)
    d. Endocrine/molecular endometrial receptivity issues
    Certain causes of infertility are repetitive and thus cannot readily be reversed. Examples include advanced age of the woman; severe male infertility; immunologic infertility associated with alloimmune implantation dysfunction (especially if it is a “complete DQ alpha genetic match between partners plus uterine natural killer cell activation (NKa).
    I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

    • The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
    • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
    • IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS)
    • The Fundamental Requirements for Achieving Optimal IVF Success
    • Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
    • Ovarian Stimulation in Women Who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): Introducing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion protocol
    • Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
    • Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
    • The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
    • Blastocyst Embryo Transfers should be the Standard of Care in IVF
    • IVF: How Many Attempts should be considered before Stopping?
    • “Unexplained” Infertility: Often a matter of the Diagnosis Being Overlooked!
    • IVF Failure and Implantation Dysfunction:
    • The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 1-Background
    • Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
    • Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 3-Treatment
    • Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
    • Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management 🙁 Case Report)
    • Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
    • Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; how it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
    • Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
    • Endometrial Thickness, Uterine Pathology and Immunologic Factors
    • Vaginally Administered Viagra is Often a Highly Effective Treatment to Help Thicken a Thin Uterine Lining
    • Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
    • A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
    • How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF?
    • The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
    If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

    *The 4th edition of my book,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

    Geoffrey Sher MD

  • Tashatee - July 13, 2017 reply

    Dr Sher,

    We have complete DQa match and have had 2 failed FETS after full immune protocol. (Intralipids, IVIG, dex, clex and asprin) We are now going to use a donor sperm. However they do not test the donor sperms for DQa in Australia. What are the chances that the donor will also have the same DQa as me? Do you think it is still a good idea to proceed with the donor sperm even with out ensuring they do not have a DQa match?

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - July 13, 2017 reply

    Unless you (female partner) has NK cell activation (as measured by the K-562 target cell test, there is no problem and you would not need DS. If there is NK cell activity then in my opinion a DQa test done on you and the sperm donor is essential. The best place to have this done is in the U.S.A. The bloods can be sent to Reprosource in Boston, MA. Look tghem up on Google and contact them to arrange.

    Geoff Sher

  • Lucinda - September 19, 2016 reply

    Hi I had an Iprocess of the MED that eggs soy infusion on wed then had IUI on Friday. Unfortunately it didn’t work. They had me in fertility shots an progesterone . Is there anything else you would consider for me. I am 40 now an been trying have baby sence I been 18.. I’m worried my body is still attacking ..

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - September 19, 2016 reply

    The older a woman becomes, the more likely it is that her eggs will be chromosomally/genetically “incompetent” (not have the potential upon being fertilized and transferred, to result in a viable pregnancy). That is why, the likelihood of failure to conceive, miscarrying and of giving birth to a chromosomally defective child (e.g. with Down Syndrome) increases with the woman’s advancing age. In addition, as women age beyond 35Y there is commonly a progressive diminution in the number of eggs left in the ovaries, i.e. diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). So it is that older women as well as those who (regardless of age) have DOR have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production of LH biological activity which can result in excessive LH-induced ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production which in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.
    While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the age-related effect on the woman’s “biological clock, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.
    I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in older women and those with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy
    Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly
    • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
    • IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
    • The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
    • Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
    • Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
    • The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
    • A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
    • Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
    • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
    • Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
    • The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
    • Blastocyst Embryo Transfers Should be the Standard of Care in IVF
    • Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
    • Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
    • Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
    • Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
    • Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It Should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
    • Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
    • PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
    • PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
    • Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
    • Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
    • A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
    • How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
    • The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
    • Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
    • IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview
    I invite you to arrange to have a Skype or an in-person consultation with me to discuss your case in detail. If you are interested, please contact Julie Dahan, at:

    Email: Julied@sherivf.com

    OR

    Phone: 702-533-2691
    800-780-7437

  • jenna woodhull - May 24, 2016 reply

    I have a quick question on the timing of intralipids. I am currently on my 4th IVF (2 chemical pregnancies, 1 failed). I did intralipids before my transfer this time, and am now 7 days past FET, and got a positive HPT!!! Of course I want to do anything and everything to keep this one healthy and growing. Do you advise continuing to do intralipid infusions? If so- when and how often? I was planning to go again in 2 days. Thank you!!!

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - May 24, 2016 reply

    You will need at least 1 more IL infusion and ASAP. Whether or not more would be needed, depends on whether the immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID) was autoimmune or alloimmune in origin (see below).

    I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

    • The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 1-Background
    • Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
    • Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 3-Treatment
    • Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
    • Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management:(Case Report
    • Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
    • Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!

    Please call or email Julie Dahan, my patient concierge. She will guide you on how to set up an in-person or Skype consultation with me. You can reach Julie at on her cell phone or via email at any time:
    Julie Dahan
    • Email: Julied@sherivf.com
    • Phone: 702-533-2691
     800-780-7437

    Geoff Sher

    I also suggest that you access the 4th edition of my book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies”. It is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

  • Magda - May 4, 2016 reply

    Could you please advise me on administrating IVIG before ET/FET? If IVIG is supposed to work, then it should be administered before synthetic progesterone is administered, i.e. on a day of embryo retrieval/several days (how many?) prior progesterone is administered? Am I correct?
    Thank you

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - May 4, 2016 reply

    IVIG works well but there a significant side effects and it is VERY expensive. I rarely if ever prescribe IVIG any longer. It has largely been supplanted bt Intralipid which is low on risk and side effects, equally effective and very much less expensive.

    However, when IVIG is given, the dosage is 40G and it should be infused starting 10-14 days prior to anticipated embryo transfer. It is repeated wit evidence of a rising blood hCG level. In cases of alloimmune implantation dysfunction (not autoimmune), it is given every 2-4 weeks thereafter until the 24th week of pregnancy. It should be combined with daily corticosteroid therapy to be optimally effective.

    Geoff Sher

  • Hannah - April 21, 2016 reply

    If I understand your blog correctly, testing activated NK cells for down regulation in the lab isn’t effective because the IL needs to be administered to the progenitor cells 10-14 days before. If you were to retest after IL is administered it then takes another 10 days to get labs results back so by then it would be too late to find out anything for the current embryo transfer. However, could it be worth retesting for NK down regulation 10-14 days after IL because it would be good information to have in case the current embryo does not implant? Then you can know if the negative result was due to lack of response to IL therapy. Also, could you share any statistics on what percentage of women with NK activation respond to IL therapy (when properly administered)? Thank you!

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - April 21, 2016 reply

    Yes! That could be a plan…but it would be too late to do anything to help in that cycle.

    Geoff Sher

  • Alex - April 19, 2016 reply

    I have heard or read that there should be a different treatment protocol using Itralipid (IL) infusions when treating Alloimmune verses Autoimmune IID. Can you please share the differences in treatment protocols that you have found to work? And if you have both Autoimmune and Alloimmune which protocol do you use?
    Thanks

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - April 20, 2016 reply

    Please read the articles as referred to below for such clarification.

    Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly
    • Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 1-Background
    • Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
    • Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 3-Treatment
    • Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
    • Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management:(Case Report
    • Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
    • Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!

    Please call or email Julie Dahan, my patient concierge. She will guide you on how to set up an in-person or Skype consultation with me. You can reach Julie at on her cell phone or via email at any time:
    Julie Dahan
    • Email: Julied@sherivf.com
    • Phone: 702-533-2691

    I also suggest that you access the 4th edition of my book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies”. It is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

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