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Ovarian Stimulation in Women Who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): Introducing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion protocol

by Dr. Geoffrey Sher on August 3, 2016

The use of GnRH antagonists, as currently prescribed in ovarian stimulation cycles, i.e. the administration of 250mcg daily from the 6or 7th day of stimulation with gonadotropins, is in my opinion problematic when used in women who have diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) (i.e. are “poor responders” to gonadotropins),. In such cases the commencement of pituitary LH suppression with GnRH antagonists 6-7 days into the stimulation fails to suppress high tonic pituitary LH in the first few days of stimulation and it is at this time , formative (early) stage of follicle/egg development early on in the most the vulnerable stage. One of the roles of LH is to promote androgen (mail hormone) production which in turn is essential (in modest amounts) for optimal follicular growth to take place. In women with high LH and/or ovarian stromal hyperplasia, the failure of conventional GnRH antagonist protocols to address this issue, results in the inevitable excessive exposure of follicles to androgens (mainly testosterone). This can adversely influence egg/embryo quality and endometrial development.

The likely reason for the traditional approach of commencing GnRH- antagonist 6-7 days after stimulation with gonadotropins commences, is to try to block the release of LH (later in the cycle) so as to try to prevent the occurrence of the so called “premature LH surge” (syn; premature luteinization), which is most commonly seen in women with DOR, who tend to be susceptible to LH-induced “follicular exhaustion” resulting in poor egg/embryo quality. But if truth be known, the term “premature LH surge” is a misnomer. Contrary to popular belief, the concept of LH rising as a “terminal event” late in the cycle is erroneous. In fact, rather than representing an isolated event, the so called “premature LH surge” is the end point of a progressive escalation in LH (“a staircase effect”) which results in increasing ovarian stromal activation with commensurate growing androgen (mainly testosterone) production. A more appropriate term would be ”Premature Luteinization.” So, trying to improve ovarian response and protect follicular exhaustion by administering Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron starting during the final few days of ovarian stimulation is like trying to prevent a shipwreck by collision, through removing the tip of an iceberg. The use of such late GnRH-antagonist protocols in women who have a normal ovarian reserve (i.e. are “good responders”) will probably not produce such adverse effects because the tonic endogenous LH levels are low (normal) and such women are unlikely to have ovarian stromal hyperplasia.

It is my opinion that some form of pituitary blockade, either in the form of a GnRH agonist (e.g. Lupron, Buserelin, Superfact or Decapeptyl) or a GnRH antagonist (e.g. Orgalutron Cetrotide, and Ganirelix) is an essential component in ovarian stimulation of “poor responders” undergoing IVF. If this is not done, a progressive rise in LH –induced ovarian androgens (male hormones ….mainly testosterone) will often adversely affect follicle/ egg development, resulting in compromised embryo quality. However, when a GnRH antagonist is used in women with DOR, it is my belief (for reasons cited above) that it should preferably be administered from early in the cycle, at the time that gonadotropin stimulation starts and NOT 6-7 days later, as is traditionally done. In such cases, the dosage of the GnRH antagonist can in my opinion be reduced to 125mcg daily.

The long Pituitary agonist down-Regulation approach: With the long Lupron down regulation protocol the administration of the GnRH agonist begins several days in advance of commencing gonadotropin stimulation. As such, by the time gonadotropin stimulation commences, most LH has been expunged from the pituitary gland thereby avoiding over-production of ovarian androgens. However, this protocol involves continued administratio0n of the GnRH agonist throughout the stimulation phase and this is not ideal for women who have DOR where prolonged administration of GnRH agonists could blunt follicular response to ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins (perhaps by competitively binding with ovarian FSH receptors).

The agonist-Antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP). I introduced the A/ACP for women with DOR, in order to counter the suppression effect of the traditional long Pituitary agonist down-regulation protocol.. With the A/ACP, low dose GnRH-antagonist (Ganirelix/Cetrotide Orgalutron) is commenced at the onset of menstrual bleeding that follows initiation of GnRH agonist therapy using a long-down-regulation protocol approach or at the onset of spontaneous menstruation. I currently prescribe the A/ACP to most of my IVF patients who have DOR. Results suggest that this is an optimal approach in such cases. In such cases I augment the stimulation with human growth hormone.

There is one potential draw back to the use of the A/ACP, in that the sustained use of a GnRH antagonist throughout the stimulation phase of the cycle, appears to compromise the predictive value of serial plasma estradiol measurements as a measure of follicle growth and development in that the estradiol levels tend to be much lower in comparison to cases where an agonist (e.g. Lupron) alone is used or where a “conventional” short GnRH antagonist protocol is employed. Rather than this being due to reduced production of estradiol by the ovary(ies), the lower blood concentration of estradiol seen with prolonged exposure to GnRH-antagonist, could be the result of a subtle, agonist-induced alteration in the configuration of the estradiol molecule , such that currently available commercial kits used to measure estradiol levels are rendered much less sensitive/specific. Thus when the A/ACP is employed, we rely much more heavily on ultrasound growth of follicles along with observation of the trend in the rise of estradiol levels, than on absolute estradiol values. For this reason I avoid prescribing the A/ACP in “high responders” who are predisposed to the development of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) where accurate measurement of plasma estradiol plays a very important role in the safe management of their stimulation cycles.

The A/ACP with Estrogen priming: In women who have severe DOR (AMH=<0.1 ng/ml) I modify the A/ACP The A/ACP through incorporation of “estrogen priming” with injections of estradiol valerate (Delestrogen), given twice weekly for about a week following the initiation of the A/ACP, and prior to commencing FSH-dominant gonadotropin stimulation. I then continue this through gonadotropin stimulation. Estrogen Priming  appears to further enhance ovarian response….presumably by up-regulating ovarian FSH-receptors. ”.

 “Flare Protocols” in women with DOR: With the “Flare” approach, GnRH agonist (e.g. Lupron/Buserelin/Superfact/Decapeptyl) is started with the initiation of gonadotropin stimulation. The agonist causes an immediate surge in pituitary gland LH release. Thus the follicles/ eggs of women on GnRH-agonist “flare protocols” are exposed to an exaggerated Lupron-induced LH release, (the “flare effect” The increased androgen production early on in the stimulation has a deleterious effect on egg development and thus on subsequent embryo quality.

The Traditional GnRH-antagonist , ‘short protocol” in women with DOR: While the follicles/eggs of women, who receive GnRH antagonists starting 6-8 days into the stimulation cycle are exposed to endogenous LH -induced ovarian androgens( especially testosterone). While this might not be problematic in in women who have normal ovarian reserve (i.e. “normal responders”), it could be decidedly prejudicial in women with DOR (“poor responders”) where endogenous tonic LH activity is usually raised and the ovaries may be inordinately sensitive to LH. In such cases excessive exposure of follicles and eggs to androgens (mainly testosterone) could severely compromise egg development and thus embryo quality.

Use of the Birth Control Pill to set up ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins: In my practice, patients are placed on a birth control pill for 10-40 days (depending on circumstance), before commencing a long antagonist protocol (whether conventional or the A/ACP). With this approach, the agonist is overlapped with the BCP in the last few days of its usage. Thereupon daily agonist administration continues until menstruation ensues a few days later at which point, the dosage of the agonist is halved and this is continued throughout stimulation until the hCG “trigger”.

The rise in FSH that occurs in ovulating women 5-6 days prior to menses, initiates recruitment of follicles available for the upcoming cycle. The BCP by suppressing ovulation (and FSH) precludes this premenstrual rise in FSH, suppressing follicle recruitment. Premenstrual GnRH agonist administration overcomes this by inducing a premenstrual FSH surge which then serves to recruits follicles in a timely manner…for the upcoming COH cycle. Following use of the BCP (without prior overlap with agonist) the first 4-6 days of FSH administration must first recruit follicles before growing them.

When the BCP is overlapped with a GnRH agonists towards the end of the BCP cycle, it triggers a pre-menstrual pituitary release of endogenous FSH (and LH). This results in recruitment of follicles to the antral follicle stage, whereupon the initiation of gonadotropin stimulation, while continuing agonist or supplanting this with low dose antagonist (i.e. A/ACP) to prevent further LH release, will induce an uninhibited and prompt follicle growth and development.

Given that FSH is so important to antral follicle “recruitment” , since the BCP suppresses FSH, it is essential (in my opinion) that the contraceptive pill be overlapped with an agonist during the last 3 days of its use to promote FSH production. If this is omitted optimal antral follicle development will not occur, and the response to subsequent ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins will in my opinion, be suboptimal. This could result in discordant egg/follicle development, a longer period of ovarian stimulation and compromised egg/embryo quality. I believe that unless the use of a long pituitary down regulation approach is contemplated, launching ovarian stimulation coming off a BCP should be avoided.

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  • Kristin S - November 20, 2017 reply

    Dr. Sher,
    As discussed previously, I am 42 years old with AMH around 1.9-2.1 and “normal” FSH. I produced 1 blast (later tested normal) from 10 eggs retrieved/6 mature and fertilized following a traditional antagonist protocol with 14 days of BCP, 6 days of 225 menopur AM 225 Gonal-f PM, adding cetrotide PM of day 7/8 and HCG trigger on the evening of day 9.
    I am now considering another round and have discussed your A/ACP option but, my current RE has suggested repeating the same antagonist protocol above with two minor changes. First she wants to reduce the BCP to 12 days, stopping it and then doing ganirillex for day 13-15 and then nothing for 16-17 day (likely starting a bleed) and then starting the atangonist protocol above on day 18. Second doing a dual trigger of HCG/Lupron to help egg quality.
    My question is whether the ganirillex for 3 days plus 2 days off prior to stims is advantageous to the first protocol wherein there was nothing for 5 days between stopping BCP and stims?
    Also, what is your opinion of a dual trigger for egg quality?

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - November 20, 2017 reply

    Very respectfully,

    While of course this could work, it would not be my preference for reasons that might be more apparent if you read the articles I referred you to (previously) on my blog! My preference would be a long pituitary down-regulation protocol (the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol-A/ACP) augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I would trigger you with 10,000U hCG (Pregnayl/Profasi/Novarel) and would do Staggered IVF with PGS (using next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-and hopefully transfer up to 2 normal blastocysts by FET ion a subsequent hormone replacement cycle. In my opinion, this type of approach would optimize the chance of a viable pregnancy per embryo transfer procedure and provide an opportunity to capitalize on the fact that you at this time still seem to have adequate ovarian reserve.

    Geoff Sher

    Good luck!

    Good luck!

    Geoff Sher

  • Nikki - June 26, 2017 reply

    Hi Dr Sher
    I am 42 with DOR and a history of unexplained fertility. The only thing that has been ever found was high prolactin levels and I am currently taking Dostinex to keep this under control. I had 2 miscarriages @ 6 weeks prior to the high prolactin diagnosis. We attempted 2 rounds of IVF already – Round 1 yielded 4 eggs but none fertilised most likely due to quality and Round 2 yielded 2 eggs with one fertilising, good quality but did not achieve pregnancy.
    We are currently attempting round 3 of IVF using your Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol (have not used this protocol before).

    IVF #3
    Pre-cycle:
    Post Ovulation Suprefact 7 days
    Next 6 days : Estrofem 6mg per day, Estradot patches, Cetrotide half dose

    Cycle:
    Continue cetrotide half dose
    Day 5 start stims
    Gonal f 300iu / increased to 450iu Day 10 due to lack of follicle growth
    Menopur 150iu
    Day 8 start Growth Hormone (continue for 8 days)

    Noted hugely increased follicle growth when Gonal f was increased and now currently on cycle Day 17 and only 2 viable follicles (i.e. > 15mm)
    I am thinking we should cancel this cycle and try again with 450iu Gonal f from the start of stims due to the slow response. Just checking if you think there is anything else we should be doing? Thanks!

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - June 26, 2017 reply

    The older a woman becomes, the more likely it is that her eggs will be chromosomally/genetically “incompetent” (not have the potential upon being fertilized and transferred, to result in a viable pregnancy). That is why, the likelihood of failure to conceive, miscarrying and of giving birth to a chromosomally defective child (e.g. with Down Syndrome) increases with the woman’s advancing age. In addition, as women age beyond 35Y there is commonly a progressive diminution in the number of eggs left in the ovaries, i.e. diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). So it is that older women as well as those who (regardless of age) have DOR have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production of LH biological activity which can result in excessive LH-induced ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production which in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.
    While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the age-related effect on the woman’s “biological clock, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.
    I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in older women and those with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy
    Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly
    • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
    • IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
    • The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
    • Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
    • Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
    • The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
    • A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
    • Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
    • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
    • Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
    • The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
    • Blastocyst Embryo Transfers Should be the Standard of Care in IVF
    • Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
    • Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
    • Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
    • Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
    • Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It Should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
    • Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
    • PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
    • PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
    • Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
    • Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
    • A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
    • How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
    • The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
    • Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
    • IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview
    ANNOUNCEMENTS:
    1. About my Retirement
    After > 30 years in the field of Assisted Reproduction (AR), the time has finally come for me to contemplate retiring from full-time clinical. If you are interested in my medical services prior to my retirement, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com. You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com.

    2. The 4th edition of my newest book ,
    “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is now available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

    Geoffrey Sher MD

  • Jocelyn - April 18, 2017 reply

    Hi Dr. Sher,

    We’ve recently gone through two rounds of failed IVFs and our clinic has told us they don’t recommend any further IVFs due to poor egg quality. I’ve been reading your blog and I have come across your posts regarding not recommending testosterone for patients with DOR. For these last two rounds I was taking androgel nightly for a month prior to the cycle start and I’m wondering if this may have attributed to a poor outcome. I am 37 years old and have an AMH of 1 ng/mol. My husband has no issues with his sperm We did have a successful full-term pregnancy through an IUI that was converted to IVF (puregon only) when my AMH was 2.6 ng/mol 5 years ago. My FSH ranges between 10 to 13, but my lastest round it was 7. We had a previous failed IVF outcome with menopur prior to our successful iui conversion. I’ll outline the two recent protocols below.

    IVF #1 – antral follicle count 5
    200iu of Puregon x 2 daily, with 100iu of suprefact 2x daily, and androgel at night (on shoulders)
    started stims from day 2 to day 10, triggered on day 10 with 10,000 units of HCG
    5 follicles on day of trigger
    Retrieved 5 eggs, 4 mature and fertilized, Day 3 2 grade 2 (8,7), 2 grade 3 (8,7)
    transfer day 5 of one compacting blast, none to freeze, 2 arrested other low quality blast, -ve beta

    IVF#2 antral follicle count 12
    FSH 7.11
    Stims: 300iu puregon daily, androgel at night
    stims start day 2, add in 100iu of micro dose HCG on day 8 of stims, stim until day 13, trigger with 10,000 of HCG and 800iu of suprefact
    4 follicles above 15 on trigger and one at 12 (12 and 15 are on left ovary, 20, 19 and 17 on right)
    Retrieval – only 2 eggs retrieved, RE cannot find follicles on left ovary, suspect premature ovulation of left follicles, one follicle empty on right
    both retrieved eggs immature. Left to culture a couple days and did not mature.

    Do you think the testosterone priming may have affected our outcome?

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - April 18, 2017 reply

    The testosterone, in my opinion certainly did not help. However, in my opinion, the overall protocol for ovarian stimulation needs to be carefully reviewed and likely revised.

    In my opinion, the protocol used for ovarian stimulation, against the backdrop of age, and ovarian reserve are the drivers of egg quality and egg quality is the most important factor affecting embryo “competency”.
    Women who (regardless of age) have DOR have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production of LH biological activity which can result in excessive LH-induced ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production which in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.

    While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the effect of DOR, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can in my opinion, make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in women with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy

    Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

    • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
    • IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
    • The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
    • Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
    • Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
    • The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
    • A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
    • Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
    • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
    • Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
    • The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
    • Blastocyst Embryo Transfers should be the Standard of Care in IVF
    • Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
    • Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
    • Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
    • Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
    • Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
    • Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
    • PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
    • PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
    • Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
    • Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
    • A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
    • How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
    • The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
    • Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
    • IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview

    I invite you to arrange to have a Skype or an in-person consultation with me to discuss your case in detail. If you are interested, please contact Julie Dahan, at:
    Email: Julied@sherivf.com
    OR
    Phone: 702-533-2691
    800-780-7437
    I also suggest that you access the 4th edition of my book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies”. It is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

  • Lily - March 23, 2017 reply

    Hello Dr Sher,

    I am a healthy 31 year old with DOH. I met with a fertility expert in December when it was revealed that my FSH is very high and my AMH is very low. I began to take the recommended supplements of DHEA, CoQ10, Inisitol and Vitamin D (I was also quite deficient in D). I had my first IVF cycle in January in which no eggs were obtained from the 7 or 8 follicles that were seen in the ultrasound. The protocol that was used during that cycle was called Antagonist/Clomid. I started with Clomid, Menopur and Follistim then added Ganirelix on day 4 and had my failed retrieval on day 14.
    My husband and I are going in for our second round next week. We have higher hopes now realizing that the supplements have had a full few months to absorb into my body as well as my FSH coming down from my initial 20 to 12. I’ve begun estrogen priming and this time, our protocol is called MD Lupron. I will start with Microdose Lupron twice a day then add Menopur and Gonal-F on day three along with Dexamethasone, Clomid and Viagra. Then on day six, I will add Omnitrope and have my retrieval with a day fifteen projection.
    After reading your article, I got a bit worried. Is the protocol that I will be following considered a Lupron- “flare” protocol…the one which you do not recommend for ladies with DOR? I would greatly appreciate any advise and would love to hear your thoughts. Thank you very much for your help!

    Warm Regards,
    Lily

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - March 24, 2017 reply

    Hi Lily,

    Different doctors use varying protocols. There is more than one way of doing things.

    I do NOT advocate the use of DHEA in women with DOR as in my opinion it can adversely affect egg development and thus embryo quality. Since you have DOR, if I were treating you, I would use a different approach to stimulation and would not use clomiphene.

    In my opinion, the protocol used for ovarian stimulation, against the backdrop of age, and ovarian reserve are the drivers of egg quality and egg quality is the most important factor affecting embryo “competency”.
    Women who (regardless of age) have DOR have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production of LH biological activity which can result in excessive LH-induced ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production which in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.

    While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the effect of DOR, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can in my opinion, make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in women with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy

    Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

    • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
    • IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
    • The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
    • Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
    • Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
    • The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
    • A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
    • Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
    • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
    • Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
    • The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
    • Blastocyst Embryo Transfers should be the Standard of Care in IVF
    • Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
    • Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
    • Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
    • Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
    • Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
    • Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
    • PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
    • PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
    • Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
    • Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
    • A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
    • How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
    • The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
    • Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
    • IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview

    I invite you to arrange to have a Skype or an in-person consultation with me to discuss your case in detail. If you are interested, please contact Julie Dahan, at:
    Email: Julied@sherivf.com
    OR
    Phone: 702-533-2691
    800-780-7437
    I also suggest that you access the 4th edition of my book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies”. It is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

  • Marketa - February 26, 2017 reply

    Dear Dr. Sher,
    Having read this blog post, I’d like to ask what LH levels you consider to be indicative of DOR/PCOS please? Of course, I suppose you only get a full picture from assessment in conjunction with other indicators such as FSH, AMH, AFC, etc., but I was wondering if there is any “general” LH level above which you judge LH should be supressed at the early stage of stimulation. And what LH levels do you like to see during stimulation?
    Thank you very much for your insight and your valuable advice on this website.

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - February 26, 2017 reply

    There is no absolute LH level. However with PCOS the basal LH is often higher than FSH (usually doubled).

    Geoff Sher

  • Maggie - December 27, 2016 reply

    Hi Dr. Sher,
    I am 39 G0Po, history of
    – abdominal radiation/chemo (cyclophosphamide/vincristine) & retroperitoneal tumor removal (at level of lumbar spine) at age 1
    – AMH 0.189, FSH 6.3, Estradiol 88. Pooled progesterone 8.7 with luteal phase 9-10d
    – normal BBT ovulation patterns monthly with 26day cycle
    – Husband normal workup, age 45.
    – anti-TPO ab, euthyroid, but on synthroid 25mcg/day to maintain TSH > Gonal F increased to 525
    Day 8. E2 163.5 LH 1.2
    Day 10 E2 257 LH 4.3 –> Gonal F reduced to 450 again
    Day 12 E2 307. LH 9.3
    Day 13. ** E2 154.2 ** LH 1.9. Follicles 19.96mm, 18.5mm, 16.51mm, 13.94mm. Endo thickness 7.05
    Day 14. E2 262.6 – trigger at 2am
    Day 15. retrieval -failed, no eggs.

    ** I’m not sure why my E2 dropped the day before trigger. LH had started to rise, but progesterone remained low (0.72), so I don’t think I ovulated prior to transfer.

    I am about to start 2nd round IVF. Given total failure of 1st attempt – looking for ‘best’ protocol.
    In reading your blog, I’m seeing:
    – importance of priming before cycle (I cannot take BCP because of FVL/prior DVT) w/ antagonist
    – ?starting antagonist earlier during stimulation
    – ? avoiding menopur
    -? still benefit of adding HGH
    – ? banking PGS-tested embryos — although I’m skeptical of this given low # of eggs produced, and issue of mosaics and accuracy of PGS testing in truly predicting an embryo with good rate of pregnancy success.

    Would appreciate your thoughts on:
    – why prior cycle failed (?protocol or just my age/medical hx)
    – suggestions going forward for protocol.

    Much appreciated!

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - December 28, 2016 reply

    WHY DID THE IVF FAIL:

    Whenever a patient fails to achieve a viable pregnancy following embryo transfer (ET), the first question asked is why! Was it simply due to, bad luck?, How likely is the failure to recur in future attempts and what can be done differently, to avoid it happening next time?.
    It is an indisputable fact that any IVF procedure is at least as likely to fail as it is to succeed. Thus when it comes to outcome, luck is an undeniable factor. Notwithstanding, it is incumbent upon the treating physician to carefully consider and address the causes of IVF failure before proceeding to another attempt:
    1. Age: The chance of a woman under 35Y of age having a baby per embryo transfer is about 35-40%. From there it declines progressively to under 5% by the time she reaches her mid-forties. This is largely due to declining chromosomal integrity of the eggs with advancing age…”a wear and tear effect” on eggs that are in the ovaries from birth.
    2. Embryo Quality/”competency (capable of propagating a viable pregnancy)”. As stated, the woman’s age plays a big role in determining egg/embryo quality/”competency”. This having been said, aside from age the protocol used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is the next most important factor. It is especially important when it comes to older women, and women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) where it becomes essential to be aggressive, and to customize and individualize the ovarian stimulation protocol.
    We used to believe that the uterine environment is more beneficial to embryo development than is the incubator/petri dish and that accordingly, the earlier on in development that embryos are transferred to the uterus, the better. To achieve this goal, we used to select embryos for transfer based upon their day two or microscopic appearance (“grade”). But we have since learned that the further an embryo has advanced in its development, the more likely it is to be “competent” and that embryos failing to reach the expanded blastocyst stage within 5-6 days of being fertilized are almost invariably “incompetent” and are unworthy of being transferred. Moreover, the introduction into clinical practice about a decade ago, (by Levent Keskintepe PhD and myself) of Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS), which assesses for the presence of all the embryos chromosomes (complete chromosomal karyotyping), provides another tool by which to select the most “competent” embryos for transfer. This methodology has selective benefit when it comes to older women, women with DOR, cases of unexplained repeated IVF failure and women who experience recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).
    3. The number of the embryos transferred: Most patients believe that the more embryos transferred the greater the chance of success. To some extent this might be true, but if the problem lies with the use of a suboptimal COS protocol, transferring more embryos at a time won’t improve the chance of success. Nor will the transfer of a greater number of embryos solve an underlying embryo implantation dysfunction (anatomical molecular or immunologic).Moreover, the transfer of multiple embryos, should they implant, can and all too often does result in triplets or greater (high order multiples) which increases the incidence of maternal pregnancy-induced complications and of premature delivery with its serious risks to the newborn. It is for this reason that I rarely recommend the transfer of more than 2 embryos at a time and am moving in the direction of advising single embryo transfers …especially when it comes to transferring embryos derived through the fertilization of eggs from young women.
    4. Implantation Dysfunction (ID): Implantation dysfunction is a very common (often overlooked) cause of “unexplained” IVF failure. This is especially the case in young ovulating women who have normal ovarian reserve and have fertile partners. Failure to identify, typify, and address such issues is, in my opinion, an unfortunate and relatively common cause of repeated IVF failure in such women. Common sense dictates that if ultrasound guided embryo transfer is performed competently and yet repeated IVF attempts fail to propagate a viable pregnancy, implantation dysfunction must be seriously considered. Yet ID is probably the most overlooked factor. The most common causes of implantation dysfunction are:
    a. A“ thin uterine lining”
    b. A uterus with surface lesions in the cavity (polyps, fibroids, scar tissue)
    c. Immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID)
    d. Endocrine/molecular endometrial receptivity issues
    Certain causes of infertility are repetitive and thus cannot readily be reversed. Examples include advanced age of the woman; severe male infertility; immunologic infertility associated with alloimmune implantation dysfunction (especially if it is a “complete DQ alpha genetic match between partners plus uterine natural killer cell activation (NKa).

    DIMINISHED OVARIAN RESERVE:

    In my opinion, the protocol used for ovarian stimulation, against the backdrop of age, and ovarian reserve are the drivers of egg quality and egg quality is the most important factor affecting embryo “competency”.
    Women who (regardless of age) have DOR have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production of LH biological activity which can result in excessive LH-induced ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production which in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.

    While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the effect of DOR, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can in my opinion, make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in women with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy

    Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

    • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
    • IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
    • The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
    • Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
    • Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
    • The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
    • A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
    • Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
    • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
    • Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
    • The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
    • Blastocyst Embryo Transfers should be the Standard of Care in IVF
    • Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
    • Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
    • Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
    • Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
    • Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
    • Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
    • PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
    • PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability IVF Failure and Implantation Dysfunction:
    • The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 1-Background
    • Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
    • Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 3-Treatment
    • Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
    • Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management:(Case Report
    • Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
    • Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; How it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
    • Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
    • Endometrial Thickness, Uterine Pathology and Immunologic Factors
    • Vaginally Administered Viagra is Often a Highly Effective Treatment to Help Thicken a Thin Uterine Lining
    • Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
    • Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
    • A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
    • How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
    • The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
    • Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
    • IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview

    I invite you to arrange to have a Skype or an in-person consultation with me to discuss your case in detail. If you are interested, please contact Julie Dahan, at:
    Email: Julied@sherivf.com
    OR
    Phone: 702-533-2691
    800-780-7437

    I also suggest that you access the 4th edition of my book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies”. It is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

  • Cinthia - September 22, 2016 reply

    Hello i am 43, 3 kids , now i have done An ivf but my RE told me to do the estrogen priming protocol, beggining with progynova (valerate estradiol pills) the 3 Days before mens. And continue 5 Days, when he Saw me after the day 5 of mens i got al the follicles in the same size, and he told me to start gonal 225 and LH 75 and see him again in a week, by that moment i have a trilaminar endometrio of 8 mm , a Dominant follicle!! And a lot of other follicles. He ask me to come back in two Days and to start that nigh the cetrotide. Two Days later the Dominant follicle size was 20 and there were 11 folicles from 11 to 17 mm. That night he told me to trigger with 250 Ovidrel and gonapeptyl, the result : 3 mature eggs not fertilized and all the rest empty follicles
    The prior ivf i done letrozole and 75 gonal and 75 menopur starting with mens and i got 12 ovocytes 6 mature , 1 blastocyst freezed because i has mild Ohss.
    Iba desperate, is these pretocols wright? Or are complete wrong?

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher

    Dr. Geoffrey Sher - September 22, 2016 reply

    The older a woman becomes, the more likely it is that her eggs will be chromosomally/genetically “incompetent” (not have the potential upon being fertilized and transferred, to result in a viable pregnancy). That is why, the likelihood of failure to conceive, miscarrying and of giving birth to a chromosomally defective child (e.g. with Down Syndrome) increases with the woman’s advancing age. In addition, as women age beyond 35Y there is commonly a progressive diminution in the number of eggs left in the ovaries, i.e. diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). So it is that older women as well as those who (regardless of age) have DOR have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production of LH biological activity which can result in excessive LH-induced ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production which in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.
    While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the age-related effect on the woman’s “biological clock, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.
    I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in older women and those with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy
    Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly
    • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
    • IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
    • The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
    • Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
    • Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
    • The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
    • A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
    • Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
    • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
    • Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
    • The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
    • Blastocyst Embryo Transfers Should be the Standard of Care in IVF
    • Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
    • Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
    • Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
    • Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
    • Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It Should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
    • Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
    • PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
    • PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
    • Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
    • Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
    • A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
    • How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
    • The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
    • Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
    • IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview
    I invite you to arrange to have a Skype or an in-person consultation with me to discuss your case in detail. If you are interested, please contact Julie Dahan, at:

    Email: Julied@sherivf.com

    OR

    Phone: 702-533-2691
    800-780-7437

    I also suggest that you access the 4th edition of my book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies”. It is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

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