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Dear Patients,

I created this forum to welcome any questions you have on the topic of infertility, IVF, conception, testing, evaluation, or any related topics. I do my best to answer all questions in less than 24 hours. I know your question is important and, in many cases, I will answer within just a few hours. Thank you for taking the time to trust me with your concern.

– Geoffrey Sher, MD

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17,905 Comments

Sally

Hi Dr Sher,
I transferred a morula on day 5 of my last IVF cycle (fresh transfer) and on the evening of day 8 following the 5 day transfer, I got a period. The day after, at 14dpo, my beta HCG was 5, estrogen was 49, progesterone was 35, FSH was 9 and LH was 2.6.
What causes an early period in the luteal phase of an IVF cycle if progesterone levels are high and there is a little HCG? Is it best to consider an ovidrel or pregnyl booster during luteal phase to prevent this next time?

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

That is 13 days after the “trigger shot” and while perhaps coming a day or two sooner than usual, is not really “early” or aberrant.

Geoff Sher

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Sally

Thanks Dr Sher. Would it be bad if I started BCP during low HCG and heavy period bleeding? My HCG is going up ever so slightly and I’d like to move on with my next cycle.

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Christine

Hello Dr Sher, im 40 and recently had 5 embryos make it to blastocyst stage. I had assisted hatched but not enough cells had poked out for them to do PGS so none of the embryos were suitable for testing. Does that mean they are all likely to be aneuploid?

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Respectfully Christine! That explanation does not hold water with me.

Geoff Sher

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Frieda

Dr Sher, I saw your comment to the other person about reducing dose of lupron when stims are started on long lupron protocol. I asked my RE and he said if that’s done then more LH will get through and he agrees with you when you say too much LH can compromise egg quality. Does lowering lupron to 5 really allow more LH to get through thereby compromising egg quality?

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Hi Frieda,

Very respectfully, in my opinion it will not break through!

Geoff Sher

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Felicia

Hi Dr. Sher,

I was wondering if Clomid would help high lh, high fsh, and normal testosterone in a male factor? Thanks!

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Nothing effective in improving sperm production…. to my knowledge.

Geoff Sher

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Anja Meyer

Good day Dr Sher,

I am 29 years old, diagnosed with SLE (Lupus) back in 2001. In November 2017 we went to the infertility specialist in an attempt to get pregnant. I left all my medication for the SLE and is only on prednisone 5mg, Ecotrine, Intralipid infusion, Glucophage and vitamins. The dr gave me an injection to ovulate and then progesterone pills and cream to take 2 days after conception. The treatment was unsuccessful. I just want to know if this treatment will work for someone with my condition and what else can be done? Thank you

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Hi Anja,

This alone might not be enough to resolve your infertility issues.

Successful management of “Unexplained Infertility” requires that a very individualized approach be taken. Wherever possible the underlying cause should first be identified. Problems that involve ovulation dysfunction (hormonal imbalance) require ovulation induction with oral or injectible fertility drugs. Cervical mucous hostility due to infection with ureaplasma (which is transferred back and forth sexually to both partners) requires specific and concurrent antibiotic therapy. In other cases involving younger women (under 39 years) where there is a problem with sperm migration via the cervix and uterus to the fallopian tube(s) intrauterine insemination (IUI) with or without ovulation induction, is indicated. When these treatments fail, in cases, women over the age of 39 years, in women with IID, in men or women who harbor antisperm antibodies in significant concentrations and in cases associated with tubal abnormalities, in vitro fertilization (IVF) is needed. All cases of intractable, moderate or severe male infertility call for injecting sperm directly into the egg to achieve forced fertilization (intracytoplasmic sperm injection-ICSI).

If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com. You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

It is an indisputable fact that most causes of infertility can be diagnosed and it is a great pity that the diagnosis of “unexplained infertility” is often used as an excuse for not having performed a full and detailed evaluation of the problem. Couples should not simply accept a diagnosis of “unexplained infertility” at face value since treatment is most likely to be successful when the specific cause of the problem can be fully identified

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Megan loydl

Hello, I have endometriosis we just did a IVF cycle that only resulted in 2 4AB embryos. I only had 11 follicles during the IVF cycle, about 6 months before on no meds I had over 20 follicles. All tests have come back where they should, I am 31 years old, my last lap was 4 years ago, I have had 2 miscarries. Should I do another lap than IVF or IUI or just do another IVF cycle one I feel ready?

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Endometriosis is a significant feature of your history and could be central to your IVF failure as well as miscarriages.Please access the relevant articles on my blog that are listed below.

I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.
• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF:
• The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 1-Background
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
• Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 3-Treatment
• Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management:(Case Report
• Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; How it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
• Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas
• Should IVF Treatment Cycles be provided uninterrupted or be Conducted in 7-12 Pre-scheduled “Batches” per Year
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
• Endometriosis and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) and IVF
• Endometriosis and Infertility: Why IVF Rather than IUI or Surgery Should be the Treatment of Choice.
• Endometriosis and Infertility: The Influence of Age and Severity on Treatment Options
• Early -Endometriosis-related Infertility: Ovulation Induction (with or without Intrauterine Insemination) and Reproductive Surgery Versus IVF
• Treating Ovarian Endometriomas with Sclerotherapy.
• Effect of Advanced Endometriosis with Endometriotic cysts (Endometriomas) on IVF Outcome & Treatment Options.
• Deciding Between Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).
• Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): Who Needs it & who Does Not: Pro’s &
• Induction of Ovulation With Clomiphene Citrate: Mode of Action, Indications, Benefits, Limitations and Contraindications for its ue
• Clomiphene Induction of Ovulation: Its Use and Misuse!

If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com. You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

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Aga

Dear Dr. Sher,

After years of IVF attempts, we have decided to adopt an embryo.
We are offered tested and euploid hatching blastocyst of the highest grade but from day 6.
Intuitively I would wait until blastocyst from day 5 is available. Am I right? – Does in your opinion blastocyst from day 5 give a better chance for success? … or it doesn’t matter day 6 or day 5 as long as it is tested?

I have one more question: does the age of donor (28yrs old) matter if embryo was tested normal?

We went thru a lot and this time just I want to make everything and anything I can to help the success even if it means to wait another cycle.

Thank you so much!

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

A day 6 embryo that tested PGS-normal from embryos derived from eggs of a 28y old is good!

Good luck!

Geoff Sher

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Aga

Thank you sooo much Dr. Sher!
So there is not real difference in success between blastocyst from day 5 and from day 6 as long as its tested normal?
Thank you again!

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Kate Kline

Hey Dr. Sher, do you grade frozen embryos again after they are thawed? (Before transferring?). If so, how much merit should you give to those grades? I’ve noticed in our last two FETs, our embryo ratings went down significantly upon thaw. (BBB to CCC). Is that normal/expected after initial thaw or is it a sign that the embryo is not viable?

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Not really. We tend to thaw on the morning of the FET so that the blastocysts often have not had sufficient time to re-expand…making grading very difficult!

Geoff Sher

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Sabrina

Hi Dr Sher, what should baseline hormone levels be (FSH, LH and E2) after 21 days on BCP with 3 day lupron overlap and further 6 days of lupron before starting stimulation medication? Is there such a thing as too low? On last cycle after 21 days on BCP and 3 days of lupron overlap and a further 6 days of lupron 10u my baseline hormone levels were LH: 2.4 and oestrogen is 10 pg/ml. Is that oestrogen level on third day of menses a bit too low? I started FSH that evening.

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Tonya

Hi Dr Sher, my RE says that one’s lining should be < 3mm on day of stimulation. Is that correct? You say stimulation on a long cycle should start on the first day of menses, but i don't think my lining is < 3mm on the first day of menses.. hoping you could explain. Ta!

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Mary

Dr. Sher 1) would you recommend PGS with use of donor eggs where the donor age is approximately 21 but is a first time donor (not proven)? 2) I will be 39 this year and have has 2 previous miscarriages (age 37) through natural conception and a failed ivf transfer positive pregnancy but no fetal development/had D&C (PGS normal tested embryo) (age 38) suspect poor egg quality continues to be the issue. How many donor embryos should be transferred? Thank you!

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

I would not do PGS since most ogf her eggs would be normal. I would transfer up to 2 blastocysts at a time.

Geoff Sher

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Mary

Dr Sher thank you for your advice. A follow up, to family balance is there any test aside from the by product of PGS to identify embryo gender?

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Heather

Hi Dr. Sher,
I transferred two 5-day blastocysts (Grade 5AB, 5BB-both non-PGS tested) 8 days ago and just received my beta level at 246 (8dp5dt). Two days ago, I had a small amount of brown spotting when I went to the bathroom and noticed a very very tiny small blood clot (size of 1/16 of an inch or smaller). Since then, I haven’t had any spotting.
What should I be looking for on Wednesday at my next beta if this was a multiple pregnancy that spontaneously reduced? Would my hcg levels increase as normal or would there a slight decrease due to the loss of one implanted embryo? Any advice on how to proceed would be appreciated.

Thanks so much.

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

It should continue to double every 2 days, early in the 1st trimester.

Good luck!

Geoff Sher

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Heather

I was wondering whether you could clarify for me what you meant by the following paragraph in your blog on interpreting HCG levels:
In some cases the initially hCG level is within the normal range, but then fails to double in the ensuing 48-72hours. In some cases it might even plateau or decline, only to start doubling appropriately thereafter. When this happens, it could be due to: ◦A recovering implantation, destined to develop into a clinical gestation
◦A failing implantation (a chemical pregnancy)
◦A multiple pregnancy which is spontaneously reducing (i.e., one or more of the concepti is being lost) or,
◦An ectopic pregnancy which will either absorb spontaneously (a chemical-tubal gestation), or evolve into a full blown tubal pregnancy continue and declare itself through characteristic symptoms and signs of an intraperitoneal bleed.

When would you suggest to have a 3rd beta drawn after you have had two 48 hours apart?
Thanks.

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

A failing implantation means the pregnancy will not be sustained; A recovering pregnancy usually means it started off with the implantation faltering (a ‘glitch”) but is recovering; A reducing multiple embryo implantation means the initially >1 embryo takes whereupon one absorbed while the other continues on; An ectopic (tubal) implantation can present this way because the lining of the Fallopian tube is not adequate for allowing implantation to proceed. This is probably more commonly the case than most recognize.

I would keep repeating the beta hCG until it is possible to see the trend the hCG takes and then a few weeks later, if still in doubt, do an ultrasound.

Good luck!

Geoff Sher

Geoff Sher

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Heather

Thank you for responding to my questions. I received my second beta and it rose from 8dp5dt: 247 to 10dp5dt: 685. I am hoping this is a good sign because it more than doubled.
I have found your website very informative and appreciate all the articles you post.
Thanks again.

Quinnlyn

Hi Dr Sher, what problems would you see on a lupron ivf protocol if on day of menses the lupron dose is not reduced to 5 iu and the person continues on 10 iu until trigger?

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Quinnlyn

In one of your articles you say it “blunts” follicular response, but i don’t know what that means “blunt”..? does that mean slow growing? or something else?

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Reduces response and so, in my opinion, could slow down follicle growth.

Geoff Sher

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Probably no real problem except that in my opinion, the higher the lupron dosage the more suppressed the response to stimulation with gonadotropins might be.

Geoff Sher

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Quinnlyn

Thanks Dr Sher. My RE says he’s worried I’ll surge through 5iu. Have you seen this happen?

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Frankly, for most cases that would not matter, but for women with DOR, since in my opinion a higher dosage of Lupron could reduce follicle response to gonadotropins, it might, in my opinion reduce egg number/quality.

Geoff Sher

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Quinnlyn

Thank you VERY VERY VERY much for your explanation. It’s sincerely appreciated from the bottom of my heart! xx

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Genevieve

Thank you in advance for having this forum and answering questions. I just miscarried a PGS tested embryo at 10 weeks after seeing the heartbeat from 6 weeks to 9 weeks. About myself: I’m 38, have hashimotos thyroid, possible mosaic Turner’s syndrome (one karyotype came back 20% of cells another 0%. I’ve had two successfully completely normal pregnancies with a previous relationship. With my current partner I’ve had 3 miscarriages with non PGS tested embryos 3 chemical pregnancies and then this last miscarriage with the PGS tested embryo. I did a modified natural FET with crionine suppository support, and low dose aspirin. I’ve saved the fetus to be tested but I’m looking for a direction. I believe there were no red flags with normal recurrent blood panel, no clotting disorders and anatomically tests came back perfect. The only thing I saw was a positive ANA result but my doctor said that was fine. I have a meeting to talk to him next week. Can you think of any testing or questions or ideas you might have? I have 2 frozen PGS tested embryos but I’m scared to use them unless something changes with my plan. Thanks so much!!

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Your positive ANA is a red flag that could point to an underlying immunologic implantation dysfunction. However, pleased read below.

Between 2% and 5% of women of the childbearing age have reduced thyroid hormone activity (hypothyroidism). Women with hypothyroidism often manifest with reproductive failure i.e. infertility, unexplained (often repeated) IVF failure, or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The condition is 5-10 times more common in women than in men. In most cases hypothyroidism is caused by damage to the thyroid gland resulting from of thyroid autoimmunity (Hashimoto’s disease) caused by damage done to the thyroid gland by antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal auto-antibodies.
The increased prevalence of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) in women is likely the result of a combination of genetic factors, estrogen-related effects and chromosome X abnormalities. This having been said, there is significantly increased incidence of thyroid antibodies in non-pregnant women with a history of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss and thyroid antibodies can be present asymptomatically in women without them manifesting with overt clinical or endocrinologic evidence of thyroid disease. In addition, these antibodies may persist in women who have suffered from hyper- or hypothyroidism even after normalization of their thyroid function by appropriate pharmacological treatment. The manifestations of reproductive dysfunction thus seem to be linked more to the presence of thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) than to clinical existence of hypothyroidism and treatment of the latter does not routinely result in a subsequent improvement in reproductive performance.
It follows, that if antithyroid autoantibodies are associated with reproductive dysfunction they may serve as useful markers for predicting poor outcome in patients undergoing assisted reproductive technologies.
Some years back, I reported on the fact that 47% of women who harbor thyroid autoantibodies, regardless of the absence or presence of clinical hypothyroidism, have activated uterine natural killer cells (NKa) cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) and that such women often present with reproductive dysfunction. We demonstrated that appropriate immunotherapy with IVIG or intralipid (IL) and steroids, subsequently often results in a significant improvement in reproductive performance in such cases.
The fact that almost 50% of women who harbor antithyroid antibodies do not have activated CTL/NK cells suggests that it is NOT the antithyroid antibodies themselves that cause reproductive dysfunction. The activation of CTL and NK cells that occurs in half of the cases with TAI is probably an epiphenomenon with the associated reproductive dysfunction being due to CTL/NK cell activation that damages the early “root system” (trophoblast) of the implanting embryo. We have shown that treatment of those women who have thyroid antibodies + NKa/CTL using IL/steroids, improves subsequent reproductive performance while women with thyroid antibodies who do not harbor NKa/CTL do not require or benefit from such treatment.

When it comes to reproduction, humans are the poorest performers of all mammals. In fact we are so inefficient that up to 75% of fertilized eggs do not produce live births, and up to 30% of pregnancies end up being lost within 10 weeks of conception (in the first trimester). RPL is defined as two (2) or more failed pregnancies. Less than 5% of women will experience two (2) consecutive miscarriages, and only 1% experience three or more.
Pregnancy loss can be classified by the stage of pregnancy when the loss occurs:
• Early pregnancy loss (first trimester)
• Late pregnancy loss (after the first trimester)
• Occult “hidden” and not clinically recognized, (chemical) pregnancy loss (occurs prior to ultrasound confirmation of pregnancy)
• Early pregnancy losses usually occur sporadically (are not repetitive).
In more than 70% of cases the loss is due to embryo aneuploidy (where there are more or less than the normal quota of 46 chromosomes). Conversely, repeated losses (RPL), with isolated exceptions where the cause is structural (e.g., unbalanced translocations), are seldom attributable to numerical chromosomal abnormalities (aneuploidy). In fact, the vast majority of cases of RPL are attributable to non-chromosomal causes such as anatomical uterine abnormalities or Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID).
Since most sporadic early pregnancy losses are induced by chromosomal factors and thus are non-repetitive, having had a single miscarriage the likelihood of a second one occurring is no greater than average. However, once having had two losses the chance of a third one occurring is double (35-40%) and after having had three losses the chance of a fourth miscarriage increases to about 60%. The reason for this is that the more miscarriages a woman has, the greater is the likelihood of this being due to a non-chromosomal (repetitive) cause such as IID. It follows that if numerical chromosomal analysis (karyotyping) of embryonic/fetal products derived from a miscarriage tests karyotypically normal, then by a process of elimination, there would be a strong likelihood of a miscarriage repeating in subsequent pregnancies and one would not have to wait for the disaster to recur before taking action. This is precisely why we strongly advocate that all miscarriage specimens be karyotyped.
There is however one caveat to be taken into consideration. That is that the laboratory performing the karyotyping might unwittingly be testing the mother’s cells rather than that of the conceptus. That is why it is not possible to confidently exclude aneuploidy in cases where karyotyping of products suggests a “chromosomally normal” (euploid) female.
Late pregnancy losses (occurring after completion of the 1st trimester/12th week) occur far less frequently (1%) than early pregnancy losses. They are most commonly due to anatomical abnormalities of the uterus and/or cervix. Weakness of the neck of the cervix rendering it able to act as an effective valve that retains the pregnancy (i.e., cervical incompetence) is in fact one of the commonest causes of late pregnancy loss. So also are developmental (congenital) abnormalities of the uterus (e.g., a uterine septum) and uterine fibroid tumors. In some cases intrauterine growth retardation, premature separation of the placenta (placental abruption), premature rupture of the membranes and premature labor can also causes of late pregnancy loss.
Much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in RPL. There are two broad categories:
1. Problems involving the uterine environment in which a normal embryo is prohibited from properly implanting and developing. Possible causes include:
• Inadequate thickening of the uterine lining
• Irregularity in the contour of the uterine cavity (polyps, fibroid tumors in the uterine wall, intra-uterine scarring and adenomyosis)
• Hormonal imbalances (progesterone deficiency or luteal phase defects). This most commonly results in occult RPL.
• Deficient blood flow to the uterine lining (thin uterine lining).
• Immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID). A major cause of RPL. Plays a role in 75% of cases where chromosomally normal preimplantation embryos fail to implant.
• Interference of blood supply to the developing conceptus can occur due to a hereditary clotting disorder known as Thrombophilia.
2. Genetic and/or structural chromosomal abnormality of the embryo.Genetic abnormalities are rare causes of RPL. Structural chromosomal abnormalities are slightly more common but are also occur infrequently (1%). These are referred to as unbalanced translocation and they result from part of one chromosome detaching and then fusing with another chromosome. Additionally, a number of studies suggest the existence of paternal (sperm derived) effect on human embryo quality and pregnancy outcome that are not reflected as a chromosomal abnormality. Damaged sperm DNA can have a negative impact on fetal development and present clinically as occult or early clinical miscarriage. The Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA) which measures the same endpoints are newer and possibly improved methods for evaluating.

IMMUNOLOGIC IMPLANTATION DYSFUNCTION
Autoimmune IID: Here an immunologic reaction is produced by the individual to his/her body’s own cellular components. The most common antibodies that form in such situations are APA and antithyroid antibodies (ATA).
But it is only when specialized immune cells in the uterine lining, known as cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells, become activated and start to release an excessive/disproportionate amount of TH-1 cytokines that attack the root system of the embryo, that implantation potential is jeopardized. Diagnosis of such activation requires highly specialized blood test for cytokine activity that can only be performed by a handful of reproductive immunology reference laboratories in the United States.
Alloimmune IID, i.e., where antibodies are formed against antigens derived from another member of the same species, is believed to be a relatively common immunologic cause of recurrent pregnancy loss.
Autoimmune IID is often genetically transmitted. Thus it should not be surprising to learn that it is more likely to exist in women who have a family (or personal) history of primary autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus (LE), scleroderma or autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease), autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease), rheumatoid arthritis, etc. Reactionary (secondary) autoimmunity can occur in conjunction with any medical condition associated with widespread tissue damage. One such gynecologic condition is endometriosis. Since autoimmune IID is usually associated with activated NK and T-cells from the outset, it usually results in such very early destruction of the embryo’s root system that the patient does not even recognize that she is pregnant. Accordingly the condition usually presents as “unexplained infertility” or “unexplained IVF failure” rather than as a miscarriage.

Alloimmune IID, on the other hand, usually starts off presenting as unexplained miscarriages (often manifesting as RPL). Over time as NK/T cell activation builds and eventually becomes permanently established the patient often goes from RPL to “infertility” due to failed implantation. RPL is more commonly the consequence of alloimmune rather than autoimmune implantation dysfunction.
However, regardless, of whether miscarriage is due to autoimmune or alloimmune implantation dysfunction the final blow to the pregnancy is the result of activated NK cells and CTL in the uterine lining that damage the developing embryo’s “root system” (trophoblast) so that it can no longer sustain the growing conceptus. This having been said, it is important to note that autoimmune IID is readily amenable to reversal through timely, appropriately administered, selective immunotherapy, and alloimmune IID is not. It is much more difficult to treat successfully, even with the use of immunotherapy. In fact, in some cases the only solution will be to revert to selective immunotherapy plus using donor sperm (provided there is no “match” between the donor’s DQa profile and that of the female recipient) or alternatively to resort to gestational surrogacy.
DIAGNOSING THE CAUSE OF RPL
In the past, women who miscarried were not evaluated thoroughly until they had lost several pregnancies in a row. This was because sporadic miscarriages are most commonly the result of embryo numerical chromosomal irregularities (aneuploidy) and thus not treatable. However, a consecutive series of miscarriages points to a repetitive cause that is non-chromosomal and is potentially remediable. Since RPL is most commonly due to a uterine pathology or immunologic causes that are potentially treatable, it follows that early chromosomal evaluation of products of conception could point to a potentially treatable situation. Thus I strongly recommend that such testing be done in most cases of miscarriage. Doing so will avoid a great deal of unnecessary heartache for many patients.
Establishing the correct diagnosis is the first step toward determining effective treatment for couples with RPL. It results from a problem within the pregnancy itself or within the uterine environment where the pregnancy implants and grows. Diagnostic tests useful in identifying individuals at greater risk for a problem within the pregnancy itself include:

• Karyotyping (chromosome analysis) both prospective parents
• Assessment of the karyotype of products of conception derived from previous miscarriage specimens
• Ultrasound examination of the uterine cavity after sterile water is injected or sonohysterogram, fluid ultrasound, etc.)
• Hysterosalpingogram (dye X-ray test)
• Hysteroscopic evaluation of the uterine cavity
• Full hormonal evaluation (estrogen, progesterone, adrenal steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, FSH/LH, etc.)
• Immunologic testing to include:
a) Antiphospholipid antibody (APA) panel
b) Antinuclear antibody (ANA) panel
c) Antithyroid antibody panel (i.e., antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies)
d) Reproductive immunophenotype
e) Natural killer cell activity (NKa) assay (i.e., K562 target cell test)
f) Alloimmune testing of both the male and female partners
TREATMENT OF RPL
Treatment for Anatomic Abnormalities of the Uterus: This involves restoration through removal of local lesions such as fibroids, scar tissue, and endometrial polyps or timely insertion of a cervical cerclage (a stitch placed around the neck of the weakened cervix) or the excision of a uterine septum when indicated.
Treatment of Thin Uterine Lining: A thin uterine lining has been shown to correlate with compromised pregnancy outcome. Often this will be associated with reduced blood flow to the endometrium. Such decreased blood flow to the uterus can be improved through treatment with sildenafil and possibly aspirin.
Sildenafil (Viagra) Therapy. Viagra has been used successfully to increase uterine blood flow. However, to be effective it must be administered starting as soon as the period stops up until the day of ovulation and it must be administered vaginally (not orally). Viagra in the form of vaginal suppositories given in the dosage of 25 mg four times a day has been shown to increase uterine blood flow as well as thickness of the uterine lining. To date, we have seen significant improvement of the thickness of the uterine lining in about 70% of women treated. Successful pregnancy resulted in 42% of women who responded to the Viagra. It should be remembered that most of these women had previously experienced repeated IVF failures.

Use of Aspirin: This is an anti-prostaglandin that improves blood flow to the endometrium. It is administered at a dosage of 81 mg orally, daily from the beginning of the cycle until ovulation.
Treating Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction with Selective Immunotherapy: Modalities such as IL/IVIg, heparinoids (Lovenox/Clexane), and corticosteroids (dexamethasone, prednisone, prednisolone) can be used in select cases depending on autoimmune or alloimmune dysfunction.
The Use of IVF in the Treatment of RPL
In the following circumstances, IVF is the preferred option:
1. When in addition to a history of RPL, another standard indication for IVF (e.g., tubal factor, endometriosis, and male factor infertility) is superimposed.
2. In cases where selective immunotherapy is needed to treat an immunologic implantation dysfunction.
The reason for IVF being a preferred approach in such cases is that in order to be effective, the immunotherapy needs to be initiated well before spontaneous or induced ovulation. Given the fact that the anticipated birthrate per cycle of COS with or without IUI is at best about 15%, it follows that short of IVF, to have even a reasonable chance of a live birth, most women with immunologic causes of RPL would need to undergo immunotherapy repeatedly, over consecutive cycles. Conversely, with IVF, the chance of a successful outcome in a single cycle of treatment is several times greater and, because of the attenuated and concentrated time period required for treatment, IVF is far safer and thus represents a more practicable alternative
Since embryo aneuploidy is a common cause of miscarriage, the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), with tests such as CGH, can provide a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic advantage in cases of RPL. PGD requires IVF to provide access to embryos for testing.
There are a few cases of intractable alloimmune dysfunction due to absolute DQ alpha matching where Gestational Surrogacy or use of donor sperm could represent the only viable recourse, other than abandoning treatment altogether and/or resorting to adoption. Other non-immunologic factors such as an intractably thin uterine lining or severe uterine pathology might also warrant that last resort consideration be given to gestational surrogacy.
The good news is that if a couple with RPL is open to all of the diagnostic and treatment options referred to above, a live birthrate of 70%–80% is ultimately achievable.

I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.
• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
• Ovarian Stimulation in Women Who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): Introducing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion protocol
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers Should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• IVF: How Many Attempts should be considered before Stopping?
• “Unexplained” Infertility: Often a matter of the Diagnosis Being Overlooked!
• IVF Failure and Implantation Dysfunction:
• The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 1-Background
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
• Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 3-Treatment
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management:(Case Report
• Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; How it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
• Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
• Endometrial Thickness, Uterine Pathology and Immunologic Factors
• Vaginally Administered Viagra is Often a Highly Effective Treatment to Help Thicken a Thin Uterine Lining
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

Geoff Sher

reply
Genevieve

I thank you for all of this advice. I’ve spend the last week researching and reading. My doctor basically said he was unfamiliar and had me talk to a doctor in NYC about immune testing. He seemed quite confident he knew he could treat me with success, but their costs were not very friendly. I have requested all of my records and I’m waiting for them so I can send them over to you to give me advice/consultation/order lab work to figure this out. I’d love to use your treatment protocol for my next IVF cycle, since I have 2 chromosmally good embryos waiting. I’ve started communicating with Julie and hopefully we can speak in the next few weeks.
~Genevieve

reply
Genevieve

If I were to have my IVF done still locally with my team in NY (we have frozen embryos) would you still consult and treat for immune issues? or do you require your patients to travel and do an IVF cycle in Las Vegas?

reply
Genevieve

Hopefully my records are on their way soon. I’m feeling like consulting with you is my last hope. Thanks so much.

Kate

Hey Dr. Sher, I’m pretty sure our FET this month failed (will confirm tomorrow). The way I best deal with the grief is by planning next steps.

I have hypothalamic amenorrhea so my cycles are nonexistent and I don’t ovulate on my own. My question is in regards to timing of the next FET. Is there any reason why I couldn’t get a bleed (once I stop my PIO and estrogen) and then go right into the next FET cycle?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

I would need to know much more in order to answer that question authoritatively.

Please call 800-780-7437 to set up a Skype consultation with me to discuss!

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Meg

Dr. Sher, I have been struggling with infertility treatment for the past two years. I just turned 44 and have two healthy boys we conceived naturally with relative ease when I was 32 and 37. My husband and I really want a third. I have a high follicle count and great day 3 testing, but irregular menstrual cycles due to hypothalamic amenorrhea. (I am fit, a runner.) In our first infertility treatment cycle, I got pregnant with IUI but sadly had a pregnancy loss at 13 weeks due to a chromosomal abnormality. After that, we went straight to IVF with PGS/freeze all. I have a great response to menopur and hcg trigger, producing 12-20 eggs each cycle at retrieval, 80-90% of which fertilize on their own, most look good quality on day 3 but then there is a fall off resulting in 1-4 blasts each cycle that they are able to test/freeze.

On my first cycle, I produced one good PGS tested embryo out of 4 blasts. The frozen transfer resulted in a chemical pregnancy (HCG level 12. I had an ERA and it showed that I was pre receptive: the transfer was done 24 hours too early. Despite my high number of follicles, it took me six cycles before I got another PGS tested normal embryo. The transfer occurred a few weeks ago with the new timing (6 days of progesterone), again my lining was around 12, everything in the cycle went well and the RE said the transfer placement was a success. I took it easy and did all the right things. Alas, we just found out that it did not take. My RE said there was no explanation for why it failed- she was surprised. The only possibility she could think of is that perhaps I have scar tissue that prevented implantation, although I’ve had an HSG.

My husband and I are devastated and wondering how to proceed. I thought if I got a PGS tested embryo and the timing was determined, it would work. What else could explain the problems? Given my age, we are wondering if it is worth it to continue trying. If so, with the same PGS/FET protocol? Anything else I should try? I really hate to give up.

Thanks in advance for your insight.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Whenever a patient fails to achieve a viable pregnancy following embryo transfer (ET), the first question asked is why! Was it simply due to, bad luck?, How likely is the failure to recur in future attempts and what can be done differently, to avoid it happening next time?.
It is an indisputable fact that any IVF procedure is at least as likely to fail as it is to succeed. Thus when it comes to outcome, luck is an undeniable factor. Notwithstanding, it is incumbent upon the treating physician to carefully consider and address the causes of IVF failure before proceeding to another attempt:
1. Age: The chance of a woman under 35Y of age having a baby per embryo transfer is about 35-40%. From there it declines progressively to under 5% by the time she reaches her mid-forties. This is largely due to declining chromosomal integrity of the eggs with advancing age…”a wear and tear effect” on eggs that are in the ovaries from birth.
2. Embryo Quality/”competency (capable of propagating a viable pregnancy)”. As stated, the woman’s age plays a big role in determining egg/embryo quality/”competency”. This having been said, aside from age the protocol used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is the next most important factor. It is especially important when it comes to older women, and women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) where it becomes essential to be aggressive, and to customize and individualize the ovarian stimulation protocol.
We used to believe that the uterine environment is more beneficial to embryo development than is the incubator/petri dish and that accordingly, the earlier on in development that embryos are transferred to the uterus, the better. To achieve this goal, we used to select embryos for transfer based upon their day two or microscopic appearance (“grade”). But we have since learned that the further an embryo has advanced in its development, the more likely it is to be “competent” and that embryos failing to reach the expanded blastocyst stage within 5-6 days of being fertilized are almost invariably “incompetent” and are unworthy of being transferred. Moreover, the introduction into clinical practice about a decade ago, (by Levent Keskintepe PhD and myself) of Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS), which assesses for the presence of all the embryos chromosomes (complete chromosomal karyotyping), provides another tool by which to select the most “competent” embryos for transfer. This methodology has selective benefit when it comes to older women, women with DOR, cases of unexplained repeated IVF failure and women who experience recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).
3. The number of the embryos transferred: Most patients believe that the more embryos transferred the greater the chance of success. To some extent this might be true, but if the problem lies with the use of a suboptimal COS protocol, transferring more embryos at a time won’t improve the chance of success. Nor will the transfer of a greater number of embryos solve an underlying embryo implantation dysfunction (anatomical molecular or immunologic).Moreover, the transfer of multiple embryos, should they implant, can and all too often does result in triplets or greater (high order multiples) which increases the incidence of maternal pregnancy-induced complications and of premature delivery with its serious risks to the newborn. It is for this reason that I rarely recommend the transfer of more than 2 embryos at a time and am moving in the direction of advising single embryo transfers …especially when it comes to transferring embryos derived through the fertilization of eggs from young women.
4. Implantation Dysfunction (ID): Implantation dysfunction is a very common (often overlooked) cause of “unexplained” IVF failure. This is especially the case in young ovulating women who have normal ovarian reserve and have fertile partners. Failure to identify, typify, and address such issues is, in my opinion, an unfortunate and relatively common cause of repeated IVF failure in such women. Common sense dictates that if ultrasound guided embryo transfer is performed competently and yet repeated IVF attempts fail to propagate a viable pregnancy, implantation dysfunction must be seriously considered. Yet ID is probably the most overlooked factor. The most common causes of implantation dysfunction are:
a. A“ thin uterine lining”
b. A uterus with surface lesions in the cavity (polyps, fibroids, scar tissue)
c. Immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID)
d. Endocrine/molecular endometrial receptivity issues
Certain causes of infertility are repetitive and thus cannot readily be reversed. Examples include advanced age of the woman; severe male infertility; immunologic infertility associated with alloimmune implantation dysfunction (especially if it is a “complete DQ alpha genetic match between partners plus uterine natural killer cell activation (NKa).
I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements for Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
• Ovarian Stimulation in Women Who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): Introducing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion protocol
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• IVF: How Many Attempts should be considered before Stopping?
• “Unexplained” Infertility: Often a matter of the Diagnosis Being Overlooked!
• IVF Failure and Implantation Dysfunction:
• The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 1-Background
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
• Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 3-Treatment
• Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management 🙁 Case Report)
• Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; how it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
• Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
• Endometrial Thickness, Uterine Pathology and Immunologic Factors
• Vaginally Administered Viagra is Often a Highly Effective Treatment to Help Thicken a Thin Uterine Lining
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF?
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

*FYI
The 4th edition of my newest book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Rachel

Hi Dr Sher, what in your view is the possible reason why a day 3 embryo that looks perfect starts to slow down on day 4. I know the embryo’s genome activates, but is slow development from day 4 onwards a sign it is chromosomally abrnomal, a mitochondrial issue or a genome activation issue and is there any belief that the sperm genome is to blame? Have you seen any slow developers on day 4 that have gone on to produce babies? Mine was only partially compacting on the morning of day 5, but was a perfect grade embryo on day 3 with 8 cells.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

An embryo that fails to reach blastocyst by day 6 post-fertilization is “incompetent” and cannot propagate a pregnancy. In my opinion, this is in the vast majority of cases due to a numerical chromosomal irregularity (aneuploidy). Accordingly, in my opinion, such embryos would not have propagated a pregnancy had they been transferred earlier.

Geoff Sher

reply
Allison LaCrosse

Hi Dr. Sher,

I’m 35, I ovulate regularly, HSG clear, and have been so far only on Clomid + timed intercourse in an effort to get pregnant. My AMH was recently tested at 2.96. My husbands semen analysis showed morphology to be at 0% but so far no Dr’s are addressing that as a potential issue. What is your opinion on 0% morphology? Is continuing to attempt timed intercourse or IUI using injectables likely to work?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Respectfully, ovulation induction with either timed intercourse or IUI will not suffice. You need IVF

Male infertility is reported as a factor in 30-50% of infertility cases. In fact, many fertility specialists will recommend a semen analysis as one of the very first tests that should be done. It is relatively simple, inexpensive and yields much information.
The two main causes of male factor infertility can be divided into either problems in manufacturing sperm or problems in getting sperm outside of the body (ejaculation of viable sperm). Sperm manufacturing problems can arise from problems in the testicle itself or from signaling problems from the brain to the testicle. Problems in ejaculation of sperm can arise from obstructions such as previous vasectomies to spinal cord injuries resulting in damage of nerves that innervate the testicle and male reproductive tract.
The initial work up for sperm problems should include a comprehensive semen analysis which will evaluate the semen against fertility standards. These include the volume of the ejaculate (2-6mL), concentration of sperm (>20M/mL), motility (>50%) and morphology (Strict >14%). The semen analysis will frequently drive the remainder of the male evaluation if warranted. For example, in severe male factor cases, where concentration is extremely low, a hormonal and genetic evaluation of the male partner including an FSH, LH, total testosterone level, TSH and prolactin might be indicated. These tests will assist in determining if the problem lies in the proper signaling of the testicle from the brain in order to manufacture sperm.
A further evaluation including a blood karyotype will further assist in determining if there is a genetic abnormality in the male causing lack of sperm manufacturing. Once these things are ruled out, then issues of obstruction must be considered. This will usually involve a urologist who specializes in male infertility. After a thorough history and physical exam of the male partner, a urologist might perform an ultrasound of the testicle, a dye test (vasogram) of the male reproductive tract, and possibly a biopsy of the testicle. There are all rather minor procedures that require very little down time.
Treatment of male factor infertility can range from intrauterine inseminations to in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In severe cases, it might be necessary to biopsy the testicle, a procedure called “testicular sperm extraction” (TESE). The biopsied sperm cells can then be used to inject into the eggs for hopeful fertilization. This procedure can diagnose as well as treat severe male factor cases.
Some cases of male factor infertility are beyond using the male partner’s sperm, and in these cases, there is still hope by using donor sperm. The use of donor sperm is safe and effective.

I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.
• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas
• Should IVF Treatment Cycles be provided uninterrupted or be Conducted in 7-12 Pre-scheduled “Batches” per Year
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• Routine Fertilization by Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): An Argument in Favor
• Hormonal Treatment of Male Infertility
• Hormonal Treatment of Male Infertility
• Antisperm Antibodies, Infertility and the Role of IVF with Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
• Varicocele and Male Infertility: When and how should it be treated?
• The Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA): A Measure of the Potential of Sperm to Help Propagate a Viable Pregnancy
• Deciding Between Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).
• Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): Who Needs it & who Does Not: Pro’s & Con’s!IUI-Reflecting upon its Use and Misuse: Time for a Serious “Reality Check
• Micro-IVF: Often Preferable to Ovarian Stimulation with or Without IUI
• Induction of Ovulation With Clomiphene Citrate: Mode of Action, Indications, Benefits, Limitations and Contraindications for its ue
• Clomiphene Induction of Ovulation: Its Use and Misuse!
If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com. You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Allison LaCrosse

As far as the other standards you mentioned the test results were in normal range it’s just the morphology listed at 0%. This SA was done 2 years ago should I request another test to see if anything has changed before moving forward?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Hysterosalpingogram (a Dye Xray to test tubal patency and the contour of the uterine cavity.

Geoff Sher

reply
Asin

Respected doctor,
I have been married since 5 years.I got 1 abortion n 2 ectopic pregnancies.After that i had opted ivf.I had done egg retrievl and got 3 embryos.They had done 2 fet s.And it ws negative.I changed the hosptal and done another wgg retrvl.First one ws negative.Second one i got miscarried.What should i do doctor.Im completely hopeless.will u help me

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Whenever a patient fails to achieve a viable pregnancy following embryo transfer (ET), the first question asked is why! Was it simply due to, bad luck?, How likely is the failure to recur in future attempts and what can be done differently, to avoid it happening next time?.
It is an indisputable fact that any IVF procedure is at least as likely to fail as it is to succeed. Thus when it comes to outcome, luck is an undeniable factor. Notwithstanding, it is incumbent upon the treating physician to carefully consider and address the causes of IVF failure before proceeding to another attempt:
1. Age: The chance of a woman under 35Y of age having a baby per embryo transfer is about 35-40%. From there it declines progressively to under 5% by the time she reaches her mid-forties. This is largely due to declining chromosomal integrity of the eggs with advancing age…”a wear and tear effect” on eggs that are in the ovaries from birth.
2. Embryo Quality/”competency (capable of propagating a viable pregnancy)”. As stated, the woman’s age plays a big role in determining egg/embryo quality/”competency”. This having been said, aside from age the protocol used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is the next most important factor. It is especially important when it comes to older women, and women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) where it becomes essential to be aggressive, and to customize and individualize the ovarian stimulation protocol.
We used to believe that the uterine environment is more beneficial to embryo development than is the incubator/petri dish and that accordingly, the earlier on in development that embryos are transferred to the uterus, the better. To achieve this goal, we used to select embryos for transfer based upon their day two or microscopic appearance (“grade”). But we have since learned that the further an embryo has advanced in its development, the more likely it is to be “competent” and that embryos failing to reach the expanded blastocyst stage within 5-6 days of being fertilized are almost invariably “incompetent” and are unworthy of being transferred. Moreover, the introduction into clinical practice about a decade ago, (by Levent Keskintepe PhD and myself) of Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS), which assesses for the presence of all the embryos chromosomes (complete chromosomal karyotyping), provides another tool by which to select the most “competent” embryos for transfer. This methodology has selective benefit when it comes to older women, women with DOR, cases of unexplained repeated IVF failure and women who experience recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).
3. The number of the embryos transferred: Most patients believe that the more embryos transferred the greater the chance of success. To some extent this might be true, but if the problem lies with the use of a suboptimal COS protocol, transferring more embryos at a time won’t improve the chance of success. Nor will the transfer of a greater number of embryos solve an underlying embryo implantation dysfunction (anatomical molecular or immunologic).Moreover, the transfer of multiple embryos, should they implant, can and all too often does result in triplets or greater (high order multiples) which increases the incidence of maternal pregnancy-induced complications and of premature delivery with its serious risks to the newborn. It is for this reason that I rarely recommend the transfer of more than 2 embryos at a time and am moving in the direction of advising single embryo transfers …especially when it comes to transferring embryos derived through the fertilization of eggs from young women.
4. Implantation Dysfunction (ID): Implantation dysfunction is a very common (often overlooked) cause of “unexplained” IVF failure. This is especially the case in young ovulating women who have normal ovarian reserve and have fertile partners. Failure to identify, typify, and address such issues is, in my opinion, an unfortunate and relatively common cause of repeated IVF failure in such women. Common sense dictates that if ultrasound guided embryo transfer is performed competently and yet repeated IVF attempts fail to propagate a viable pregnancy, implantation dysfunction must be seriously considered. Yet ID is probably the most overlooked factor. The most common causes of implantation dysfunction are:
a. A“ thin uterine lining”
b. A uterus with surface lesions in the cavity (polyps, fibroids, scar tissue)
c. Immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID)
d. Endocrine/molecular endometrial receptivity issues
Certain causes of infertility are repetitive and thus cannot readily be reversed. Examples include advanced age of the woman; severe male infertility; immunologic infertility associated with alloimmune implantation dysfunction (especially if it is a “complete DQ alpha genetic match between partners plus uterine natural killer cell activation (NKa).
I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements for Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
• Ovarian Stimulation in Women Who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): Introducing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion protocol
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• IVF: How Many Attempts should be considered before Stopping?
• “Unexplained” Infertility: Often a matter of the Diagnosis Being Overlooked!
• IVF Failure and Implantation Dysfunction:
• The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 1-Background
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
• Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 3-Treatment
• Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management 🙁 Case Report)
• Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; how it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
• Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
• Endometrial Thickness, Uterine Pathology and Immunologic Factors
• Vaginally Administered Viagra is Often a Highly Effective Treatment to Help Thicken a Thin Uterine Lining
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF?
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

*FYI
The 4th edition of my newest book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Rhi

Dr Sher, in an earlier message you said “We will have to wait and see because if you generate expanded blastocysts by day 5-6 that would override the day three grading.” So if i ended up with a gorgeous hatching blast on day 5, grade AB, i shouldn’t worry about the fragmentation it has on day 2 and day 3??

reply
Rhi

Is it best to start FSH dose on day 1 of period or is it ok to start on day 3? I’m doing a long down regulation protocol and my clinic always starts FSH on day 2 or day 3.. is there any benefit to starting on day 1 of period?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

In my opinion, the earlier the better. But day 1 or 2 wont really matter!

Geoff Sher

reply
louise

Hi Dr Sher, I have been told I have a “complete” match on DQ alpha by one specialist but another specialist told me it was only partial. Can you clarify for me please?
Hub: 0101 and 0505.
Me: 0102 and 0505.

I have slightly raised blood NK cells and uterus.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

This is a “PARTIAL” DQ-alpha match h. This in combination with your NKa+ demands individualized management.

Unless tests for immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID) are performed correctly and conducted by a one of the few reliable reproductive immunology reference laboratory in the United States, treatment will likely be unsuccessful. . In this regard it is most important that the right tests be ordered and that these be performed by a competent laboratory. There are in my opinion only a handful of reliable Reproductive Immunology Laboratories in the world and most are in the U.S.A. Also, it is my opinion that far too often, testing is inappropriate with the many redundant and incorrect tests being requested from and conducted by suboptimal laboratories. Finally for treatment to have the best chance of being successful, it is vital that the underlying type of IID (autoimmune IID versus alloimmune) be identified correctly and that the type, dosage, concentration and timing of treatments be carefully devised and implemented.
Who Should Undergo IID testing?
When it comes to who should be evaluated, the following conditions should in always raise a suspicion of an underlying IID, and trigger prompt testing:
• A diagnosis of endometriosis or the existence of symptoms suggestive of endometriosis (heavy/painful menstruation and pain with ovulation or with deep penetration during intercourse) I would however emphasize that a definitive diagnosis of endometriosis requires visualization of the lesions at laparoscopy or laparotomy)
• A personal or family history of autoimmune disease such as hyper/hypothyroidism (as those with elevated or depressed TSH blood levels, regardless of thyroid hormonal dysfunction), Lupus erythematosus, Rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, scleroderma etc.)
• “Unexplained” infertility
• Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)
• A history of having miscarried a conceptus that, upon testing of products of conception, was found to have a normal numerical chromosomal configuration (euploid).
• Unexplained IVF failure
• “Unexplained” intrauterine growth retardation due to placental insufficiency or late pregnancy loss of a chromosomally normal baby
What Parameters should be tested?
In my opinion, too many Reproductive Immunologists unnecessarily unload a barrage of costly IID tests on unsuspecting patients. In most cases the initial test should be for NK cell activation, and only if this is positive, is it necessary to expand the testing.
The parameters that require measurement include:
o For Autoimmune Implantation Dysfunction: Autoimmune implantation dysfunction, most commonly presents with presumed “infertility” due to such early pregnancy losses that the woman did not even know she was pregnant in the first place. Sometimes there as an early miscarriage. Tests required are: a) blood levels of all IgA, IgG and IgM-related antiphospholipid antibodies (APA’s) directed against six or seven specific phospholipids, b) both antithyroid antibodies (antithyroid and antimicrosomal antibodies), c) a comprehensive reproductive immunophenotype (RIP) and, c) most importantly, assessment of Natural Killer (NK) cell activity (rather than concentration) by measuring by their killing, using the K-562 target cell test and/or uterine cytokine measurement. As far as the ideal environment for performing such tests, it is important to recognize that currently there are only about 5 or 6, Reproductive Immunology Reference Laboratories in the U.S capable of reliably analyzing the required elements with a sufficient degree of sensitivity and specificity (in my opinion).
o For Alloimmune implantation Dysfunction: While alloimmune Implantation usually presents with a history of unexplained (usually repeated) miscarriages or secondary infertility (where the woman conceived initially and thereupon was either unable to conceive started having repeated miscarriages it can also present as “presumed” primary infertility. Alloimmune dysfunction is diagnosed by testing the blood of both the male and female partners for matching DQ alpha genes and NK/CTL activation. It is important to note that any DQ alpha match (partial or complete) will only result in IID when there is concomitant NK/CTL activation (see elsewhere on this blog).
How should results be interpreted?
Central to making a diagnosis of an immunologic implantation dysfunction is the appropriate interpretation of natural killer cell activity (NKa) .In this regard, one of the commonest and most serious errors, is to regard the blood concentration of natural killer cells as being significant. Rather it is the activity (toxicity) of NK cells that matters as mentioned. Then there is the interpretation of reported results. The most important consideration is the percentage of target cells “killed” in the “native state”. In most cases a level of >10% killing should be regarded with suspicion and >12% overtly abnormal. In my opinion, trying to interpret the effect of adding IVIG or Intralipid to the sample in order assess whether and to what degree the use of these products would have a therapeutic benefit is seriously flawed and of little benefit. Clinically relevant NK cell deactivation can only be significantly effected in vivo and takes more than a week following infusion to occur. Thus what happens in the laboratory by adding these products to the sample prior to K-562 target cell testing is in my opinion likely irrelevant.
There exists a pervasive but blatant misconception on the part of many, that the addition of Intralipid (IL) /immunoglobulin-G IVIG) can have an immediate down-regulatory effect on NK cell activity. This has established a demand that Reproductive Immunology Reference Laboratories report on NK cell activity before and following exposure to IVIG and/or IL. However, the fact is that activated “functional” NK cells (NKa) cannot be deactivated in the laboratory. Effective down-regulation of activated NK cells can only be adequately accomplished if their activated “progenitor/parental” NK cells are first down-regulated. Thereupon once these down-regulated “precursor” NK cells are exposed to progesterone, they will begin spawning normal and functional NK cells, which takes about 10-14 days. It follows that to assess for a therapeutic response to IVIG/IL therapy would require that the patient first be treated (10-14 days prior to embryo transfer) and thereupon, about 2 weeks later, be retested. While at 1st glance this might seem to be a reasonable approach, in reality it would be of little clinical benefit because even if blood were to be drawn 10 -14 days after IL/IVIG treatment it would require an additional 10 days to receive results from the laboratory, by which time it would be far too late to be of practical advantage.
Neither IVIG nor IL is capable of significantly suppressing already activated “functional NK cells”. For this to happen, the IL/IVIG would have to down-regulate progenitor (parent) NK cell” activity. Thus, it should be infused 10-14 several prior to ovulation or progesterone administration so that the down-regulated “progenitor/precursor” NK cells” can propagate a sufficient number of normally regulated “functional NK cell” to be present at the implantation site 7 days later. In addition, to be effective, IL/IVIG therapy needs to be combined with steroid (dexamethasone/prednisone/prednisolone) therapy to down-regulates (often) concomitantly activated T-cells.
I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements for Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
• The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 1-Background
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
• Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 3-Treatment
• Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management 🙁 Case Report)
• Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; how it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
• Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

*FYI
The 4th edition of my newest book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Louise

Thank you so much for clarifying this Dr Sher. I will arrange a consult with you. Are there any research papers you can recommend in the meantime pertaining to DQ alpha matches and treatments ?

reply
Katie

I have recently finished my 2nd egg retrieval at SIRM St. Louis with Dr. Dayal. I am 28 years old will AMH of 1.04 and my follicle count before stimulation is about 11. This egg retrieval we tried a different protocol and I retrieved less eggs. My question is.. today I got my day 3 report and embryo 1) 7 cells 10% fragmentation, embryo 2) 7 cell 25% fragmentation embryo 3) 6 cell 25% fragmentation. When I get my 5 day embryo update and if they have made it to blastocyst, will they still be somewhat abnormal or less likely to implant based of my day 3 report?
Thanks so much.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

We will have to wait and see because if you generate expanded blastocysts by day 5-6 that would override the day three grading.

You clearly, in spite of being only 28y of age, already have DOR. In my opinion, the protocol used for ovarian stimulation, against the backdrop of age, and ovarian reserve are the drivers of egg quality and egg quality is the most important factor affecting embryo “competency”.
Women who (regardless of age) have DOR have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production of LH biological activity which can result in excessive LH-induced ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production which in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.

While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the effect of DOR, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can in my opinion, make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in women with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy

Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
• A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
• Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
• Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
• Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
• Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
• PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
• PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
• Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
• IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

*FYI
The 4th edition of my newest book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Tina

Hi Dr. Sher,
I had an anembryonic pregancy/BO in June 2017 (D&C on July 3rd) and then got pregnant again early December 2017, only to find out this week that we, yet again, have an anembryonic pregnancy/BO at 8 weeks – stopped growing at 6w1d, so I am getting ready to schedule another D&C next week. My doctor suggested we see a reproductive endocrinologist a couple of weeks after the D&C to see if there could be an underlying issue causing this since the same thing has happened twice in a row. I am 29 years old and these were my first two pregnancies. My husband is 38 but has two healthy, perfect sons (ages 8 and 10) from a prior marriage. Any ideas what I should be researching or asking about when I seek help from a specialist? We live in Orlando. I will also schedule a consult for you so that we can discuss this with you the day after we see our Orlando specialist in order to get your input on their treatment plan, but I am just looking for initial ideas on what could be possible reasons this keeps happening.

Thank you, Tina

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

We should discuss this in detail!

When it comes to reproduction, humans are the poorest performers of all mammals. In fact we are so inefficient that up to 75% of fertilized eggs do not produce live births, and up to 30% of pregnancies end up being lost within 10 weeks of conception (in the first trimester). RPL is defined as two (2) or more failed pregnancies. Less than 5% of women will experience two (2) consecutive miscarriages, and only 1% experience three or more.
Pregnancy loss can be classified by the stage of pregnancy when the loss occurs:
• Early pregnancy loss (first trimester)
• Late pregnancy loss (after the first trimester)
• Occult “hidden” and not clinically recognized, (chemical) pregnancy loss (occurs prior to ultrasound confirmation of pregnancy)
• Early pregnancy losses usually occur sporadically (are not repetitive).
In more than 70% of cases the loss is due to embryo aneuploidy (where there are more or less than the normal quota of 46 chromosomes). Conversely, repeated losses (RPL), with isolated exceptions where the cause is structural (e.g., unbalanced translocations), are seldom attributable to numerical chromosomal abnormalities (aneuploidy). In fact, the vast majority of cases of RPL are attributable to non-chromosomal causes such as anatomical uterine abnormalities or Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID).
Since most sporadic early pregnancy losses are induced by chromosomal factors and thus are non-repetitive, having had a single miscarriage the likelihood of a second one occurring is no greater than average. However, once having had two losses the chance of a third one occurring is double (35-40%) and after having had three losses the chance of a fourth miscarriage increases to about 60%. The reason for this is that the more miscarriages a woman has, the greater is the likelihood of this being due to a non-chromosomal (repetitive) cause such as IID. It follows that if numerical chromosomal analysis (karyotyping) of embryonic/fetal products derived from a miscarriage tests karyotypically normal, then by a process of elimination, there would be a strong likelihood of a miscarriage repeating in subsequent pregnancies and one would not have to wait for the disaster to recur before taking action. This is precisely why we strongly advocate that all miscarriage specimens be karyotyped.
There is however one caveat to be taken into consideration. That is that the laboratory performing the karyotyping might unwittingly be testing the mother’s cells rather than that of the conceptus. That is why it is not possible to confidently exclude aneuploidy in cases where karyotyping of products suggests a “chromosomally normal” (euploid) female.
Late pregnancy losses (occurring after completion of the 1st trimester/12th week) occur far less frequently (1%) than early pregnancy losses. They are most commonly due to anatomical abnormalities of the uterus and/or cervix. Weakness of the neck of the cervix rendering it able to act as an effective valve that retains the pregnancy (i.e., cervical incompetence) is in fact one of the commonest causes of late pregnancy loss. So also are developmental (congenital) abnormalities of the uterus (e.g., a uterine septum) and uterine fibroid tumors. In some cases intrauterine growth retardation, premature separation of the placenta (placental abruption), premature rupture of the membranes and premature labor can also causes of late pregnancy loss.
Much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in RPL. There are two broad categories:
1. Problems involving the uterine environment in which a normal embryo is prohibited from properly implanting and developing. Possible causes include:
• Inadequate thickening of the uterine lining
• Irregularity in the contour of the uterine cavity (polyps, fibroid tumors in the uterine wall, intra-uterine scarring and adenomyosis)
• Hormonal imbalances (progesterone deficiency or luteal phase defects). This most commonly results in occult RPL.
• Deficient blood flow to the uterine lining (thin uterine lining).
• Immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID). A major cause of RPL. Plays a role in 75% of cases where chromosomally normal preimplantation embryos fail to implant.
• Interference of blood supply to the developing conceptus can occur due to a hereditary clotting disorder known as Thrombophilia.
2. Genetic and/or structural chromosomal abnormality of the embryo.Genetic abnormalities are rare causes of RPL. Structural chromosomal abnormalities are slightly more common but are also occur infrequently (1%). These are referred to as unbalanced translocation and they result from part of one chromosome detaching and then fusing with another chromosome. Additionally, a number of studies suggest the existence of paternal (sperm derived) effect on human embryo quality and pregnancy outcome that are not reflected as a chromosomal abnormality. Damaged sperm DNA can have a negative impact on fetal development and present clinically as occult or early clinical miscarriage. The Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA) which measures the same endpoints are newer and possibly improved methods for evaluating.

IMMUNOLOGIC IMPLANTATION DYSFUNCTION
Autoimmune IID: Here an immunologic reaction is produced by the individual to his/her body’s own cellular components. The most common antibodies that form in such situations are APA and antithyroid antibodies (ATA).
But it is only when specialized immune cells in the uterine lining, known as cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells, become activated and start to release an excessive/disproportionate amount of TH-1 cytokines that attack the root system of the embryo, that implantation potential is jeopardized. Diagnosis of such activation requires highly specialized blood test for cytokine activity that can only be performed by a handful of reproductive immunology reference laboratories in the United States.
Alloimmune IID, i.e., where antibodies are formed against antigens derived from another member of the same species, is believed to be a relatively common immunologic cause of recurrent pregnancy loss.
Autoimmune IID is often genetically transmitted. Thus it should not be surprising to learn that it is more likely to exist in women who have a family (or personal) history of primary autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus (LE), scleroderma or autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease), autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease), rheumatoid arthritis, etc. Reactionary (secondary) autoimmunity can occur in conjunction with any medical condition associated with widespread tissue damage. One such gynecologic condition is endometriosis. Since autoimmune IID is usually associated with activated NK and T-cells from the outset, it usually results in such very early destruction of the embryo’s root system that the patient does not even recognize that she is pregnant. Accordingly the condition usually presents as “unexplained infertility” or “unexplained IVF failure” rather than as a miscarriage.

Alloimmune IID, on the other hand, usually starts off presenting as unexplained miscarriages (often manifesting as RPL). Over time as NK/T cell activation builds and eventually becomes permanently established the patient often goes from RPL to “infertility” due to failed implantation. RPL is more commonly the consequence of alloimmune rather than autoimmune implantation dysfunction.
However, regardless, of whether miscarriage is due to autoimmune or alloimmune implantation dysfunction the final blow to the pregnancy is the result of activated NK cells and CTL in the uterine lining that damage the developing embryo’s “root system” (trophoblast) so that it can no longer sustain the growing conceptus. This having been said, it is important to note that autoimmune IID is readily amenable to reversal through timely, appropriately administered, selective immunotherapy, and alloimmune IID is not. It is much more difficult to treat successfully, even with the use of immunotherapy. In fact, in some cases the only solution will be to revert to selective immunotherapy plus using donor sperm (provided there is no “match” between the donor’s DQa profile and that of the female recipient) or alternatively to resort to gestational surrogacy.
DIAGNOSING THE CAUSE OF RPL
In the past, women who miscarried were not evaluated thoroughly until they had lost several pregnancies in a row. This was because sporadic miscarriages are most commonly the result of embryo numerical chromosomal irregularities (aneuploidy) and thus not treatable. However, a consecutive series of miscarriages points to a repetitive cause that is non-chromosomal and is potentially remediable. Since RPL is most commonly due to a uterine pathology or immunologic causes that are potentially treatable, it follows that early chromosomal evaluation of products of conception could point to a potentially treatable situation. Thus I strongly recommend that such testing be done in most cases of miscarriage. Doing so will avoid a great deal of unnecessary heartache for many patients.
Establishing the correct diagnosis is the first step toward determining effective treatment for couples with RPL. It results from a problem within the pregnancy itself or within the uterine environment where the pregnancy implants and grows. Diagnostic tests useful in identifying individuals at greater risk for a problem within the pregnancy itself include:

• Karyotyping (chromosome analysis) both prospective parents
• Assessment of the karyotype of products of conception derived from previous miscarriage specimens
• Ultrasound examination of the uterine cavity after sterile water is injected or sonohysterogram, fluid ultrasound, etc.)
• Hysterosalpingogram (dye X-ray test)
• Hysteroscopic evaluation of the uterine cavity
• Full hormonal evaluation (estrogen, progesterone, adrenal steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, FSH/LH, etc.)
• Immunologic testing to include:
a) Antiphospholipid antibody (APA) panel
b) Antinuclear antibody (ANA) panel
c) Antithyroid antibody panel (i.e., antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies)
d) Reproductive immunophenotype
e) Natural killer cell activity (NKa) assay (i.e., K562 target cell test)
f) Alloimmune testing of both the male and female partners
TREATMENT OF RPL
Treatment for Anatomic Abnormalities of the Uterus: This involves restoration through removal of local lesions such as fibroids, scar tissue, and endometrial polyps or timely insertion of a cervical cerclage (a stitch placed around the neck of the weakened cervix) or the excision of a uterine septum when indicated.
Treatment of Thin Uterine Lining: A thin uterine lining has been shown to correlate with compromised pregnancy outcome. Often this will be associated with reduced blood flow to the endometrium. Such decreased blood flow to the uterus can be improved through treatment with sildenafil and possibly aspirin.
Sildenafil (Viagra) Therapy. Viagra has been used successfully to increase uterine blood flow. However, to be effective it must be administered starting as soon as the period stops up until the day of ovulation and it must be administered vaginally (not orally). Viagra in the form of vaginal suppositories given in the dosage of 25 mg four times a day has been shown to increase uterine blood flow as well as thickness of the uterine lining. To date, we have seen significant improvement of the thickness of the uterine lining in about 70% of women treated. Successful pregnancy resulted in 42% of women who responded to the Viagra. It should be remembered that most of these women had previously experienced repeated IVF failures.

Use of Aspirin: This is an anti-prostaglandin that improves blood flow to the endometrium. It is administered at a dosage of 81 mg orally, daily from the beginning of the cycle until ovulation.
Treating Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction with Selective Immunotherapy: Modalities such as IL/IVIg, heparinoids (Lovenox/Clexane), and corticosteroids (dexamethasone, prednisone, prednisolone) can be used in select cases depending on autoimmune or alloimmune dysfunction.
The Use of IVF in the Treatment of RPL
In the following circumstances, IVF is the preferred option:
1. When in addition to a history of RPL, another standard indication for IVF (e.g., tubal factor, endometriosis, and male factor infertility) is superimposed.
2. In cases where selective immunotherapy is needed to treat an immunologic implantation dysfunction.
The reason for IVF being a preferred approach in such cases is that in order to be effective, the immunotherapy needs to be initiated well before spontaneous or induced ovulation. Given the fact that the anticipated birthrate per cycle of COS with or without IUI is at best about 15%, it follows that short of IVF, to have even a reasonable chance of a live birth, most women with immunologic causes of RPL would need to undergo immunotherapy repeatedly, over consecutive cycles. Conversely, with IVF, the chance of a successful outcome in a single cycle of treatment is several times greater and, because of the attenuated and concentrated time period required for treatment, IVF is far safer and thus represents a more practicable alternative
Since embryo aneuploidy is a common cause of miscarriage, the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), with tests such as CGH, can provide a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic advantage in cases of RPL. PGD requires IVF to provide access to embryos for testing.
There are a few cases of intractable alloimmune dysfunction due to absolute DQ alpha matching where Gestational Surrogacy or use of donor sperm could represent the only viable recourse, other than abandoning treatment altogether and/or resorting to adoption. Other non-immunologic factors such as an intractably thin uterine lining or severe uterine pathology might also warrant that last resort consideration be given to gestational surrogacy.
The good news is that if a couple with RPL is open to all of the diagnostic and treatment options referred to above, a live birthrate of 70%–80% is ultimately achievable.

I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.
• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
• Ovarian Stimulation in Women Who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): Introducing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion protocol
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers Should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• IVF: How Many Attempts should be considered before Stopping?
• “Unexplained” Infertility: Often a matter of the Diagnosis Being Overlooked!
• IVF Failure and Implantation Dysfunction:
• The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 1-Background
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
• Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 3-Treatment
• Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management:(Case Report
• Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; How it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
• Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
• Endometrial Thickness, Uterine Pathology and Immunologic Factors
• Vaginally Administered Viagra is Often a Highly Effective Treatment to Help Thicken a Thin Uterine Lining
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

*FYI
The 4th edition of my newest book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Tina

Thank you so much for all of this information. It is so very helpful for us to have a starting point.

It is interesting you said that people with IID often have family or personal history of AutoImmune issues. My father has the HLA-B27 gene mutation and I also tested positive for this same mutation several years ago. I have been asymptomatic thus far, but for my dad, it has manifested in repeated eye infections, dermatitis/dry skin, bone spurs, and rheumatoid arthitis (which he has managed to control naturally with supplementation and diet). My mother has gluten intolerance (but she has never been tested or diagnosed for Celiac). So, I am wondering if I will fall into the category of likely people to have an autoimmune issue causing the RPLs. To be honest, my husband has a lot of autoimmune responses to random outside influences and many of the same symptoms as my dad so I often wonder if he has the same gene mutation.

I just wonder if this could be a factor in our issues and whether they test for this usually when they test for potential causes?

I will reach out to Julie today to see what your availability looks like. I want to first schedule the consult down here so that I know what they intend to do… this way I can get your input on their plan. Do you usually have a long lead time for appointments?

Tina

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

It very possibly could be a pointer. Your husband’s history of AI disease is not relevant here.

We will talk soon!

Geoff Sher

reply
Ava

Hello Doctor,
I have just watched your documentary “vegas baby” on Netflix. What an amazing documentary, loved it and cried too seeing all these women infertility issues. Im going through the same since 3.5 years and about to beging my IVF at Kaiser and paying every penny out of pocket.I need an advice from you we are thinking to do pgs on our day 5 embryos since i have an history of misscarriage and i dont want to go through the heart break again. Our lab does the “quick turnaround results” where we can get the pgs results in less than 24 hours. So my transfer would be on day 6 which will be fresh transfer. But google gives me various opinions on day 6 transfer. I just want to ask you which would be better day 5 or day 6 transfers? Would it be too late if i do day 6 transfer? Please please suggest. I would be grateful to you. Thank you so much.
Ava

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Respectfully AVA,

I am not in favor of this rapid n]turn-around PGS. nIn my opinion there is no advantage to doing a fresh versus frozen transfer, In fact the latter might even be better. So I would opt for blastocyst biopsy on day 5-6 followed by immediate embryo vitrification with FET in a subsequent hormone replacement cycle.

Geoff Sher

reply
Ava

Hello Doctor,
My clinic charges extra for FET thats why im trying to get a fresh transfer. Already im spending $23-25k and i cannot afford another $5k plus medicines cost.

reply
Danielle

Hi Dr Sher
Would you be able to estimate what the chance of healthy live birth per day 3, good quality embryo would be at age 44.5-45.5? I know it’s just a guess but it seems if someone had 15 embryos like this, there might be upwards of a 30-40% chance?
thank you

reply
Danielle

Hi Dr Sher
Do you mean 3-5% chance per 3 day embryo, or 3-5% cumulatively for all 15 embryos?

thank you so much

reply
Cathleen

Hi Dr Sher, your articles suggest that women with DOR are unlikely to succeed with mini-IVF using clomid. I’m 42 with an AMH of 0.8 and spent 4 years using conventional IVF with SIRM with no success. I could not get to a day 5 embryo no matter what protocol we tried. I moved to Life IVF and we did 3 rounds of mini-IVF using clomid and Follitism and we succeeded with a day 5 embryo each and every time. I’m just curious why mini-IVF worked but not conventional IVF. I did enjoy being with SIRM, but just couldn’t get any embryos make it to day 5. Are some women just not suited to conventional IVF because they have sensitive systems? Really curious.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Mini-IVF is associated with much lower success rates and regardless of whether you get blastocysts on clomiphene or not, when it comes to wome with DOR, clomiphene is in my opinion far less likely to be productive of competent (euploid) blastocysts and I would recommend against its use. Embryos that fail to make blastocyst are “incompetent” and would hot have propagated a pregnancy had they been transferred earlier….in my opinion.

In my opinion, the protocol used for ovarian stimulation, against the backdrop of age, and ovarian reserve are the drivers of egg quality and egg quality is the most important factor affecting embryo “competency”.
Women who (regardless of age) have DOR have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production of LH biological activity which can result in excessive LH-induced ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production which in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.

While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the effect of DOR, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can in my opinion, make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in women with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy.

Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
• A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
• Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
• Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
• Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
• Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
• PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
• PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
• Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
• IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

*FYI
The 4th edition of my newest book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Kate

4:03 pm
Hey Dr. Sher, what’s the latest you think a 6day frozen blastocyst can implant and start giving off enough hcg to be detectable on a home pregnancy test?
Tomorrow will be 7 days post transfer and I’m still getting negatives on hpts. Beta isn’t till Monday, which I know is the only way to be sure.
When I do the math though it seems impossible that 7 days after transfer an embryo wouldn’t be producing hcg if it had implanted.
Also of note, I’ve been tracking my bbt and had been averaging 96-97 (with a dip two nights ago) and then this morning spiked up to 99.2, and it’s been in the 99s all day. Could that be related to pregnancy/implantation or am I just coming down with something? (I realize the only way to be sure is a blood test but I’m curious if there’s. BBT link at all).
Thanks again so very much for all your time.

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

7 days post ET is too soon to rule out implantation by HPT. I think 10 days post blastocyst transfer is better target.

Good luck,

Geoff Sher

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Kate

Thank-you! I’m curious- is that because they initially give off such low levels of hcg? The embryo would definitely have implanted by 5-6 days post transfer, right?

Also, any merit in tracking basal body temp during the 2ww? Would it be elevated during pregnancy? I know progesterone can elevate but my temp wasn’t elevated when I was on the PIO injections prior to transfer.

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Yes! It is because of low-level hormone release. As for BBT, I really do not see merit in tracking this as an index!

Geoff Sher

reply
Najia Haidery

Hello,
I just had a few questions.
1- Do you offer 2nd opinion?
2-How much do you charge for IVF, is there a price sheet that I can have access to?
3-Do you offer discount for patients with certain income?
4- Are you in network with Cryos Egg Bank so I can get 20% with them?
5- Is scheduling appointment easy with you or you are really booked out?
6- I know there are a lot of good doctors out there but the office crew is not willing to do their work right so I am trying to find a good fertility center that satisfied my needs. If so I am willing change doctor.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

1- Do you offer 2nd opinion?
A: Yes injdeed

2-How much do you charge for IVF, is there a price sheet that I can have access to?
A: Please call 702-892-9696 and ask for Amanda Wells (Administrator). She can answer that question.

3-Do you offer discount for patients with certain income?
A: Again…, a question for Amanda

4- Are you in network with Cryos Egg Bank so I can get 20% with them?
No but that should not be a problem.

5- Is scheduling appointment easy with you or you are really booked out?
A: Within a few weeks

6- I know there are a lot of good doctors out there but the office crew is not willing to do their work right so I am trying to find a good fertility center that satisfied my needs. If so I am willing change doctor.
A: Copy!

Thanks!

Geoff Sher

reply
Suzy

Hello Dr Sher
I am 42, low amh. Had natural modified ivf. over 6 cycles I retrieved 3 top grade blastocysts. First fet with 1 blast negative. Decided to have era test, results came back as pre receptive 1 day. Went ahead with second fet 2 blasts, day 6 transfer, negative result again. If I decide to go agead with more naural ivf cycles, I have been recommended to have NGS on blasts.
My question is, have you experienced any women with a disparity between ovarian and endometrial function? For many years I have been turned away from day 3 scans due to what was thought to be suspected cyst/s which now my current doctor Has established have been actually been follicles almost ready to rupture with oestrogen levels of 800+ (UK values) have always insisted I have ovulated early on in my cycles. One particular time I had oestrogen of 2000+ two large follicles and excellent bllod flow on day 5. Two days later I went back for another scan and two corpeus leuteums were visible with ring of fire. This is easy to combat with ivf by ignoring endometrium and then preoceeding with FEts however if I wasn’t to do anymore ivf is there anything I could do to aid a natural conception with this problem? The problem is bleeding on day 1 for two days and then ovulating on day 5/6/7 the endometrium hasn’t been able to thicken. Could an oestrogen supplement help in these few days? I actually think my body is recruiting about day 21 in previous cycle. I know this because I had a scan on day 21 to see if I was ready to down reg on buserelin. On the scan there were two small antral follicles 4mm. I started buserelin and then went back on day 5 of next cycle after two weeks of buserelin and a very light bleed to find the two large follicles as mentioned before. The buserelin had actually stimulated them.
I can’t find any research online or information about this disparity between endometrium and ovarian function. Is it relatively uncommon?
Thanking you in advance
Suzy – U.K.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Hi Suzy,

Clearly you have hormonal dysfunction and in my opinion would not be a good candidate for natural cycle or low-stim IVF. It also sounds as if you could have diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). Please consider the following:

The older a woman becomes, the more likely it is that her eggs will be chromosomally/genetically “incompetent” (not have the potential upon being fertilized and transferred, to result in a viable pregnancy). That is why, the likelihood of failure to conceive, miscarrying and of giving birth to a chromosomally defective child (e.g. with Down Syndrome) increases with the woman’s advancing age. In addition, as women age beyond 35Y there is commonly a progressive diminution in the number of eggs left in the ovaries, i.e. diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). So it is that older women as well as those who (regardless of age) have DOR have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production of LH biological activity which can result in excessive LH-induced ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production which in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.
While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the age-related effect on the woman’s “biological clock, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.
I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in older women and those with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy
Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
• A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers Should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
• Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
• Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
• Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It Should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
• Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
• PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
• PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
• Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
• IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

*FYI
The 4th edition of my newest book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Lynn

Hello Dr. Scher. I am currently in discussion with my clinic about taking prednisone as a treatment option for my unexplained secondary infertility. We suspect there is an immunological implantation issue at hand, however my Dr.’s don’t seem to be familiar with protocol regarding this treatment. Do you have recommendations for dosages and or instructions for taking prednisone during a clomid (25mg) trigger shot timed intercourse/iui cycle? My girlfriend found success with prednisone after years of UI and mentioned you as the root of her trying it as a treatment option, so I figure you’d be the go-to in this area. And recommendations and or instructions would be greatly appreciated. Thanks!

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

There is no magic bullet. You need a thorough full evaluation before randomly adding Progesterone. I think we should talk!

For about 10% of all infertile couples, the cause of the infertility cannot be readily determined using conventional diagnostic methods. Such cases are often referred to as “unexplained infertility.” The truth however is that in most such cases, the diagnosis of “unexplained infertility is in fact “presumptive because a more in-depth evaluation would have revealed a cause. This having been said, people diagnosed with so called “unexplained infertility” fall into two broad groups: a)those couples who don’t have any biological problems interfering with pregnancy and, b) those who do but the reason cannot be found due to insufficient medical information or technology. It is in this latter group that improved testing techniques have made infertility easier to diagnose and treat.
In order to make even a presumptive diagnosis of “unexplained infertility” the answers to the following questions must be in the affirmative.
 Is the woman ovulating normally?
 Is the couple having intercourse regularly in the periovulatory phase of the cycle?
 Are the fallopian tubes normal and open?
 Can endometriosis be excluded?
 Does the male partner have normal semen parameters (most specifically with regard to sperm count and motility?
 Is the post coital (Huhner) test (periovulatory examination of cervical mucous, done 6-18 hours after intercourse) normal?
The definitive diagnosis of “unexplained infertility” has a lot to do with the thoroughness of the health care provider in excluding all possible causes. The fewer tests performed, the more likely a presumptive diagnosis
For Example:
 Abnormalities of the fallopian tubes (adhesions or developmental defects) of the finger-like “petals” at their outer ends of the tubes that help sweep eggs inside (i.e. fimbriae). can prevent eggs from being collected and transported to the awaiting sperm
 Chromosomal abnormalities of eggs or embryos: Eggs must be euploid (contain the right number of chromosomes) to be successfully fertilized and embryos must also be euploid in order to implant successfully in the uterine lining. Until recently there was no reliable method for determining whether eggs and embryos were euploid. The recent introduction of genetic tests such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) now allows for identification of all chromosomes in the egg and embryo. As such CGH represents an important addition to the “infertility” diagnostic armamentarium.
 Luteinized Unruptured Follicle (LUF)Syndrome: Here, the eggs can become trapped in the follicle and not be released (trapped ovulation) In such cases routine tests done to detect ovulation ((temperature charting, Urine LH testing, Blood progesterone levels) may be normal resulting in false interpretation that ovulation is actually occurring.
 Ovulation (hormonal) Dysfunction: Abnormalities in ovarian hormone production in the preovulatory phase of the cycle (follicular phase defect) and/or in the postovulatory phase (luteal phase defect) can negatively affect preparation of the uterine lining (endometrium), thus thwarting normal implantation.
 Immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID): Sometimes, the woman’s or the man’s own immune system can attack sperm cells, killing them or causing them to become immobilized. Also, immunologic dysfunction involving the uterine lining can cause the implanting embryo to be rejected so early that the woman does not even recognize that she in fact had conceived.
 Cervical infection; Ureaplasma urealyticum infection of the cervical glands can prevent sperm from migrating through the cervix and uterus to reach the egg(s) in the fallopian tube(s). Such infection will usually not be detectable through routine examination and/or cervical culturing methods.
 Mild or Moderate Endometriosis: Endometriosis is in 100% of cases associated with the production of “pelvic toxins” that reduce the fertilization potential of otherwise normal eggs by a factor of 3-5. In addition, about 1/3 of woman with endometriosis (regardless of its severity) have immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID). Furthermore mild and often even moderately severe endometriosis can only be accurately diagnosed by direct visualization of the lesions through laparoscopy or laparotomy and, the detection of IID requires highly sophisticated tests that can only be adequately performed by a handful of Reproductive Immunology Reference Laboratories in the United States. Finally, a condition called nonpigmented endometriosis, in which the endometrium may be growing inside the pelvic cavity with many of the same deleterious effects as overt endometriosis, cannot be detected even by direct vision (at laparoscopy/laparotomy). The fertility of these patients may be every bit as compromised as if they had detectable endometriosis.
 Psychological Factors: The entire reproductive process is governed by the brain. Thus it should come as no surprise that stress and negativity can interfere with hormonal balance and decrease the ability to conceive.
 Mild Male Factor
 Antisperm antibodies in the man or woman.
Management:
Successful management of “Unexplained Infertility” requires that a very individualized approach be taken. Wherever possible the underlying cause should first be identified. Problems that involve ovulation dysfunction (hormonal imbalance) require ovulation induction with oral or injectible fertility drugs. Cervical mucous hostility due to infection with ureaplasma (which is transferred back and forth sexually to both partners) requires specific and concurrent antibiotic therapy. In other cases involving younger women (under 39 years) where there is a problem with sperm migration via the cervix and uterus to the fallopian tube(s) intrauterine insemination (IUI) with or without ovulation induction, is indicated. When these treatments fail, in cases, women over the age of 39 years, in women with IID, in men or women who harbor antisperm antibodies in significant concentrations and in cases associated with tubal abnormalities, in vitro fertilization (IVF) is needed. All cases of intractable, moderate or severe male infertility call for injecting sperm directly into the egg to achieve forced fertilization (intracytoplasmic sperm injection-ICSI).
It is an indisputable fact that most causes of infertility can be diagnosed and it is a great pity that the diagnosis of “unexplained infertility” is often used as an excuse for not having performed a full and detailed evaluation of the problem. Couples should not simply accept a diagnosis of “unexplained infertility” at face value since treatment is most likely to be successful when the specific cause of the problem can be fully identified

If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com. You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

reply
lynn

Thanks Dr. I will schedule a consultation. We have tested and counted out a number of the below options. Male factor is superior and I am only 34. Uterus fallopian tubes and lining are all perfect. I ovulate normally, but late in my cycle-
we use clomid and the trigger shot to regulate. We’ve had 5 failed IUI’s and success once with timed intercourse but it was a blighted ovum. I had no problem getting pregnant with my son. Would you say that the majority of issues below would result in the need to move to IVf? That is our next course of action but I am weary that IVF will fail for whatever the same reasons the IUI’s are. I’d like to rule out the things that would cause IVF to fail before committing to it.

reply
Christina

Hi Dr, Geoffrey. I have no problems with fertility and my husband is perfectly fine. We have two beautiful daughters. I am currently 27 years old and my husband is 30. We did IVF for gender selection and so far it has failed each time. We did a endometrium biopsy and it came back normal. My natural killer cells are high just a little bit in the 5% area. I take prednisone and intralipids before each transfer to lower it. All my “male” embryos are PGS tested and all beautiful day 5 blastocyst. I did 4 cycles of IVF ; and 5 transfers with beautiful embryos and I’m not getting pregnant. All i want is a son to complete my family. My doctor tells me she doesn’t know why I’m not getting pregnant either. She asked me did i want a second opinion. Last year we transferred 2 blastocysts and had a biochemical. Because of the sad news i took a 1 year break , and decided to come back to IVF to get a boy. Apparently the same thing is happening again. I can’t get pregnant with these beautiful looking embryos. MY doctor ran every test on me and so far everything came back normal. I am paying money out of my pocket in cash each time for 4 cycles already and so far no luck. i am very stress. i don’t know what to do. please give me advice on what to do. thank you !

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Hi Christina,

Sorry you are having these problems. We need to talk!!

Whenever a patient fails to achieve a viable pregnancy following embryo transfer (ET), the first question asked is why! Was it simply due to, bad luck?, How likely is the failure to recur in future attempts and what can be done differently, to avoid it happening next time?.
It is an indisputable fact that any IVF procedure is at least as likely to fail as it is to succeed. Thus when it comes to outcome, luck is an undeniable factor. Notwithstanding, it is incumbent upon the treating physician to carefully consider and address the causes of IVF failure before proceeding to another attempt:
1. Age: The chance of a woman under 35Y of age having a baby per embryo transfer is about 35-40%. From there it declines progressively to under 5% by the time she reaches her mid-forties. This is largely due to declining chromosomal integrity of the eggs with advancing age…”a wear and tear effect” on eggs that are in the ovaries from birth.
2. Embryo Quality/”competency (capable of propagating a viable pregnancy)”. As stated, the woman’s age plays a big role in determining egg/embryo quality/”competency”. This having been said, aside from age the protocol used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is the next most important factor. It is especially important when it comes to older women, and women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) where it becomes essential to be aggressive, and to customize and individualize the ovarian stimulation protocol.
We used to believe that the uterine environment is more beneficial to embryo development than is the incubator/petri dish and that accordingly, the earlier on in development that embryos are transferred to the uterus, the better. To achieve this goal, we used to select embryos for transfer based upon their day two or microscopic appearance (“grade”). But we have since learned that the further an embryo has advanced in its development, the more likely it is to be “competent” and that embryos failing to reach the expanded blastocyst stage within 5-6 days of being fertilized are almost invariably “incompetent” and are unworthy of being transferred. Moreover, the introduction into clinical practice about a decade ago, (by Levent Keskintepe PhD and myself) of Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS), which assesses for the presence of all the embryos chromosomes (complete chromosomal karyotyping), provides another tool by which to select the most “competent” embryos for transfer. This methodology has selective benefit when it comes to older women, women with DOR, cases of unexplained repeated IVF failure and women who experience recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).
3. The number of the embryos transferred: Most patients believe that the more embryos transferred the greater the chance of success. To some extent this might be true, but if the problem lies with the use of a suboptimal COS protocol, transferring more embryos at a time won’t improve the chance of success. Nor will the transfer of a greater number of embryos solve an underlying embryo implantation dysfunction (anatomical molecular or immunologic).Moreover, the transfer of multiple embryos, should they implant, can and all too often does result in triplets or greater (high order multiples) which increases the incidence of maternal pregnancy-induced complications and of premature delivery with its serious risks to the newborn. It is for this reason that I rarely recommend the transfer of more than 2 embryos at a time and am moving in the direction of advising single embryo transfers …especially when it comes to transferring embryos derived through the fertilization of eggs from young women.
4. Implantation Dysfunction (ID): Implantation dysfunction is a very common (often overlooked) cause of “unexplained” IVF failure. This is especially the case in young ovulating women who have normal ovarian reserve and have fertile partners. Failure to identify, typify, and address such issues is, in my opinion, an unfortunate and relatively common cause of repeated IVF failure in such women. Common sense dictates that if ultrasound guided embryo transfer is performed competently and yet repeated IVF attempts fail to propagate a viable pregnancy, implantation dysfunction must be seriously considered. Yet ID is probably the most overlooked factor. The most common causes of implantation dysfunction are:
a. A“ thin uterine lining”
b. A uterus with surface lesions in the cavity (polyps, fibroids, scar tissue)
c. Immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID)
d. Endocrine/molecular endometrial receptivity issues
Certain causes of infertility are repetitive and thus cannot readily be reversed. Examples include advanced age of the woman; severe male infertility; immunologic infertility associated with alloimmune implantation dysfunction (especially if it is a “complete DQ alpha genetic match between partners plus uterine natural killer cell activation (NKa).
I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements for Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
• Ovarian Stimulation in Women Who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): Introducing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion protocol
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• IVF: How Many Attempts should be considered before Stopping?
• “Unexplained” Infertility: Often a matter of the Diagnosis Being Overlooked!
• IVF Failure and Implantation Dysfunction:
• The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 1-Background
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
• Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 3-Treatment
• Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management 🙁 Case Report)
• Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; how it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
• Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
• Endometrial Thickness, Uterine Pathology and Immunologic Factors
• Vaginally Administered Viagra is Often a Highly Effective Treatment to Help Thicken a Thin Uterine Lining
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF?
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

*The 4th edition of my book,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
M

HI Dr. Sher, I have reviewed your blog and see mention of autoimmune diseases in the context of miscarriage. I have scleroderma (Abs to centromere and dsDNA) and am wondering if it is also affecting my egg quality. I have excellent reserve and bloodwork for my age (over 40) but can’t seem to make blastocysts – have only made 1 from 3 retrievals, tested PGS abnormal. In your practice, do you also treat AI disease proactively prior to egg retrieval or do you only treat at transfer? what are your thoughts on AI disease and egg quality? thank you!

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.
• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF:
• The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 1-Background
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
• Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 3-Treatment
• Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management:(Case Report
• Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; How it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
• Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas
• Should IVF Treatment Cycles be provided uninterrupted or be Conducted in 7-12 Pre-scheduled “Batches” per Year
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
• Endometriosis and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) and IVF
• Endometriosis and Infertility: Why IVF Rather than IUI or Surgery Should be the Treatment of Choice.
• Endometriosis and Infertility: The Influence of Age and Severity on Treatment Options
• Early -Endometriosis-related Infertility: Ovulation Induction (with or without Intrauterine Insemination) and Reproductive Surgery Versus IVF
• Treating Ovarian Endometriomas with Sclerotherapy.
• Effect of Advanced Endometriosis with Endometriotic cysts (Endometriomas) on IVF Outcome & Treatment Options.
• Deciding Between Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).
• Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): Who Needs it & who Does Not: Pro’s &
• Induction of Ovulation With Clomiphene Citrate: Mode of Action, Indications, Benefits, Limitations and Contraindications for its ue
• Clomiphene Induction of Ovulation: Its Use and Misuse!

If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com. You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
M

as mentioned, I have reviewed your blog but did not find any articles on AI disease and egg quality. what are your thoughts on the topic? thank you for your feedback!

reply
Kayonni Woodard

Ok doc have a question have been through 3 ivf cycles ,only one ovary but first cycle 10 follicles 2 eggs retrieved didn’t work but here’s where everything goes crazy change doc ( new doc sirm in St. Louis) 2nd cycle got only five follicles no eggs retrieved 2 hcg shots 3rd cycle four follicles and nothing again 2 trigger shots do I have no chance to produce eggs anymore??? I’m 39 also

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

I believe so, but you might have diminished ovarian reserve.

In my opinion, the protocol used for ovarian stimulation, against the backdrop of age, and ovarian reserve are the drivers of egg quality and egg quality is the most important factor affecting embryo “competency”.
Women who (regardless of age) have DOR have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production of LH biological activity which can result in excessive LH-induced ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production which in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.

While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the effect of DOR, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can in my opinion, make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in women with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy

Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
• A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
• Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
• Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
• Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
• Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
• PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
• PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
• Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
• IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

*FYI
The 4th edition of my newest book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Dib

Not a question, just a comment. IVF is a wonderful treatment, but the uncertainty of it can be torturous for women and men. Everyone knows you’re a brilliant doctor. You take the time out of your busy schedule to seriously answer our questions. That makes you a good man. Thank you very much.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

You are very kindly Dib!.

But frankly, it is easy to do what you love to do!

Geoff Sher

reply
Danielle

Dr Sher
Hello. Do you think people with elevated FSH and low AMH have lower quality eggs, or just less of them but roughly the same quality for a given age?
Also, I am trying to get an idea of how many healthy babies have been born after transfer of an NGS- tested allegedly aneuploid embryo– I know you are supportive of transferring single chromosomal abnormal embryos in the chance that it is really an undetected mosaic and can self correct. Have you had a number of successful cases/healthy live births using NGS testing? Because I can’t find a single case report of this in the literature, only successes with embryos known to be mosaics. If this is a valid option, how come only a few doctors in this county are advocating this? Many in fact are refusing to transfer these. This is just unbelievable. Thank you for advocating for the transfer of these abnormals.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

In my opinion, there currently is no reliable laboratory test that can differentiate between mosaic and non-mosaic embryos for transfer. All I am saying is that I believe those with single chromosome abnormalities to be the ones most eligible!

Geoff Sher

reply
Sarah Namer

I am a 40 year old woman with diminished ovarian reserve, living in Canada, where I have access to a single funded, IVF procedure. No male factor infertility (using donor sperm). I find your writing on DOR treatment, and on the A/ACP protocol compelling enough to feel very unsettled about the past 4 failed IUI cycles with letrozole and DHEA supplementation, I’ve just undergone. My next step (should have been first step, but here I am) will be IVF, and I expect the clinic where I am a patient will recommend a ‘min-stim’ protocol (letrozole at 2.5 mg over 5 days, starting from day 2, overlapping with gonadotropins, starting from the third day of letrozole at 150 units daily), based on their published research showing a 30% pregnancy rate and 20% live birth rate in a series of 70 women average age 39 (+/- 3 years) with AFC 3.7 (+/- 1). I’d like to bring up your A/ACP protocol to my doctor for consideration, but can’t find any publication on your results past your 2008 publication in Fertility and Sterility, in which the decreased ovarian reserve subgroup is only 7 women. Do you have any more data you can share on your outcomes using the A/ACP protocol for DOR Advanced Reproductive Age women? I’ll have little defence without numbers, and am feeling utterly at a loss. If you are indeed still practicing, and are able to share outcomes, I would be most grateful. With thanks, Sarah Namer

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Unfortunately I have no recent data to share. However, if your RE wishes to discuss the protocol with me he/she is welcome to contact me.

The older a woman becomes, the more likely it is that her eggs will be chromosomally/genetically “incompetent” (not have the potential upon being fertilized and transferred, to result in a viable pregnancy). That is why, the likelihood of failure to conceive, miscarrying and of giving birth to a chromosomally defective child (e.g. with Down Syndrome) increases with the woman’s advancing age. In addition, as women age beyond 35Y there is commonly a progressive diminution in the number of eggs left in the ovaries, i.e. diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). So it is that older women as well as those who (regardless of age) have DOR have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production of LH biological activity which can result in excessive LH-induced ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production which in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.
While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the age-related effect on the woman’s “biological clock, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.
I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in older women and those with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy
Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
• A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers Should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
• Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
• Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
• Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It Should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
• Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
• PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
• PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
• Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
• IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

*FYI
The 4th edition of my newest book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Cathy

Hello Dr Sher, is a compacting morula on day 5 a sign of aneuploidy? Is there a reason why it’s growing slowly?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Wait 1 day to day 6 and if it has not converted to a blastocyst it is likely to be aneuploid.

Geoff Sher

reply
Eszter

Dear Dr. Sher,
I am getting ready for an IVF transfer, we have two frozen embryos. We had to postpone the transfer for months because my ureaplasma test kept coming back positive; (I had many rounds of doxycycline but the ureaplasma was resistant.) In november my doctor gave me a different, stronger round of antibiotics (Levaquin), after which the ureaplasma result was negative. Now, 1.5 months later I repeated the test to make sure I can go ahead with the transfer in my next cycle, and found that the ureaplasma is positive again. My doctor is suggesting another round of Levaquin. I’m hesitant to go ahead with that because it didn’t seem to resolve the problem in the long term and because of the effect it has on my digestive system. Also, in the past, I had multiple miscarriages ; this is our first attempt with IVF. Do you have any suggestions for me?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Ureaplasma urealyticum is a bacteria that belongs to the mycoplasma family. It can be detected in the reproductive tract of as many as 40% of individuals (male and female). Ureaplasma probably does not prevent normal conception in the majority of cases, because the uterine cavity remains sterile even in women whose cervical mucous cultures positive for the organism. However, when present in the woman’s cervical secretions, the organism can be unintentionally dragged into the uterine cavity through introduction of a catheter into the uterus at the time of embryo transfer (ET) or intrauterine insemination (IUI). Molecular biologists have shown that contamination of rapidly growing cell cultures, by this organism and its close “relative”, mycoplasma hominis rapidly destroys such cells. The implanting embryo is indeed an example of an organism that comprises rapidly growing cells in a biological culture medium (the uterine lining), and as such, the cells of the trophoblast that form the “root system” of the embryo are vulnerable to intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma. However, even if the uterine cavity were to become infected, the infection willl be purged with the shedding of the infected lining at the time of the next menstruation.
While infection with Ureaplasma rarely produces symptoms in the woman, it sometimes causes symptomatic prostatitis or epydidimitis in men. Although ureaplasma can be transmitted from one partner to the other by sexual intercourse, it may also be acquired by other means, since a large percentage of couples in monogamous relationships will culture positive for the organism. It is very difficult for the organism to grow in the laboratory. Accordingly, the reproductive secretions of both partners should be evaluated (sperm and cervical mucus) individually. Successful culturing of ureaplasma requires a specialized media in which the specimens can be transported safely from the physician’s office to the microbiology laboratory.
If both partners culture negative, we can assume that there is no infection present. However, if one partner cultures positive and the other negative, we would err on the side of caution, by assuming that the negative result was caused by the difficulty in culturing the organism. When ureaplasma is detected in the reproductive secretions of either partner, both should be treated concurrently with the appropriate antibiotic (doxycycline, zithromax, erythromycin, ciprofloxin, or metronidazole; cleomycin).
Unfortunately, in approximately 30-40% of couples infected ureaplasma urealyticum, the bacteria will have built resistance to mainstay traditional antibiotics such as tetracyclines (e.g. doxycycline) and erythromycin (e.g. Zythromax) derivatives. In such cases, ciprofloxin or metronidazole (Flagyl) therapy might be needed. This is the reason that we prefer to document cure by reculturing each partner prior to beginning ovarian stimulation for an IVF cycle.
Several authors have shown a difference in pregnancy rates among patients with ureaplasma infection who were treated with antibiotics and those who were not. Other reports have not been able to identify an effect on outcome from ureaplasma infection. Thus, until the final verdict is in regarding the roll of ureaplasma with regard to its effect on IVF implantation, we prefer to err on the side of caution and ensure that this organism is absent in cervical secretions and semen before transferring embryos. To this end, my patients all receive prophylactic antibiotic therapy around the time of embryo transfer. This is administered as oral ciprofloxin. A day or two prior to embryo transfer, vaginal cleomycin suppositories are added.

Good luck!

Geoff Sher

reply
Donna Stephans

At 44.5 I underwent IVF due to scarred fallopian tubes. Retrieved 20 eggs… All 20 made it to the blastocyst stage. Some were lost during freezing. Implanted 2 fresh.. Miscarried both. Implanted 3 frozen. One resulted in a beautiful girl. Had 9 left. Decided I wanted to Pgs before attempting to provide a sibling. ALL came back as aneuploid at some level. 4 were complex aneuploid. The others varied but there were 2 I’m still considering and would like a second opinion. The center explained the possibility of mosaicism and error.

I have a 47, XY trisomy 22 and a 46, XY monosomy 4. My thought is that the 46 would either correct or terminate and the 47 might bring in a DS Child.. But I am prepared for that. Should I leave well enough alone? Ask for further test? Move forward with a transfer and hope for the best? Leave well enough alone.

You don’t have to mention my age.. My RE loves reminding me that I’m the oldest woman in Texas to have conceived in IVF with her own eggs. While my FSH remains below 3.9 and my ovarian reserve still counts high I know that’s not a sign of quality. But nothing has been conventional in this journey. I will not do another cycle… So before throwing in the towel I want to do due diligence. Please advise.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Trisomy 22 does NOT lead to Down syndrome and yes I would transfer both in the hope that one is “mosaic”. doing a chorionic villus sampling or amnio to rule out an abnormality in the event you do conceive!

Good luck and G-d bless!

Geoff Sher

reply
Mary

Hi Dr Sher
My partner and I have just been tested for the DQ Alpha gene and he results show we share the following genes: 01:02/01:03 and 05:01. What does all this mean regarding pregnancy in the future and IVF?
Thanks for your help.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

we really should talk. This is a complex issue that could not be adequately addressed on this forum.

I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements for Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
• The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 1-Background
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
• Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 3-Treatment
• Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management 🙁 Case Report)
• Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; how it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
• Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF?
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

reply
Jess

Hi Dr. Sher, I have heard so many good things about you! I have been trying to convince for 5 years now, I have done multiple rounds of clomid with no success, 2 IUI no success, I have been diagnosed with PCOS, insulant resistance, diabetes type 2, over weight, I’m 33 my husband 35 can you help us!

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Thank you kindly!

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal system disorder among women affecting between 5% and 10% of women of reproductive age worldwide. Women with PCOS may have enlarged ovaries that contain multiple small collections of fluid (subcapsular microcysts) that are arranged like a “string of pearls” immediately below the ovarian surface (capsule).interspersed by an overgrowth of ovarian connective tissue (stroma). The condition is characterized by abnormal ovarian function (irregular or absent periods, abnormal or absent ovulation and infertility, androgenicity (increased body hair or hirsutism, acne) and increased body weight –body mass index or BMI.
Women with PCOS are at increased risk that ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins will result in the, of development of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a life-endangering condition that is often accompanied by a profound reduction in egg “competency” and on fertilization often yield an inordinately high percentage of “incompetent” embryos which have a reduced potential to propagate viable pregnancies.
Concern and even fear that their PCOS patients will develop of OHSS often leads the treating RE to take measures aimed at reducing the risk of this life-endangering condition. One such measures is to “trigger” egg maturation prematurely in the hope of arresting further follicular growth and the other, is to initiate the “trigger” with a reduced dosage of hCG (i.ed. 5,000U rather than the usual 10,000U of of Pregnyl/Profasi/Novarel, to use or 250mcg rather than 500mcg of Ovidrel or to supplant the hCG “trigger” with a Lupron “trigger” which causes a prompt LH surge from the woman’s pituitary gland to take place. While such measures do indeed reduce the risk of OHSS to the mother, this often comes at the expense of egg quantity and “competency”. Fewer than the anticipated number of eggs are harvested and those that are retrieved are far more likely to be “immature” and chromosomally abnormal (aneuploid”), or “immature” , thereby significantly compromising IVF outcome.
Against this background, It is my considered opinion that when it comes to performing IVF in women with PCOS, the most important consideration must be the selection and proper implementation of an individualized or customized ovarian stimulation protocol. Thereupon, rather than prematurely initiating the “trigger” to arrest further follicle growth, administering a reduced dosage of hCG or “triggering with a GnRH agonist (e.g. Lupron/Buserelin) that can compromise egg “competency”….. use of one of the following techniques will often markedly reduce the risk of OHSS while at the same time protecting egg quality:
1. PROLONGED COASTING…my preferred approach: My preferred approach is to use a long pituitary down-regulation protocol coming off the BCP which during the last 3 days is overlapped with the agonist, Lupron/Buserelin/Superfact. The BCP is intended to lower LH and thereby reduce stromal activation (hyperthecosis) in the hope of controlling LH-induced ovarian androgen (predominantly, testosterone) production and release. I then stimulate my PCOS patients using a low dosage of recombinant FSH-(FSHr) such as Follistim/Gonal-F/Puregon. On the 3rd day of such stimulation a smidgeon of LH/hCG (Luveris/Menopur) is added. Thereupon, starting on day 7 of ovarian stimulation, I perform serial blood estradiol (E2) and ultrasound follicle assessments, watching for the number and size of the follicles and the blood estradiol concentration [E2]. I keep stimulating (regardless of the [E2] until 50% of all follicles reach 14mm. At this point, provided the [E2] reaches at least >2,500pg/ml, I stop the agonist as well as gonadotropin stimulation and track the blood E2 concentration daily. The [E2] will almost invariably increase for a few days. I closely monitor the [E2] as it rises, plateaus and then begins to decline. As soon as the [E2] drops below 2500pg/ml (and not before then), I administer a “trigger” shot of 10,000U Profasi/ Novarel/Pregnyl or 500mcg Ovidrel/Ovitrel. This is followed by an egg retrieval, performed 36 hours later. Fertilization is accomplished using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because “coasted” eggs usually have little or no cumulus oophoris enveloping them and eggs without a cumulus will not readily fertilize naturally. Moreover, they also tend to have a “hardened” envelopment (zona pellucida), making spontaneous fertilization problematic in many cases. All fertilized eggs are cultured to the blastocyst stage (up to day 5- 6 days) and thereupon are either vitrified and preserved for subsequent transfer in later hormone replacement cycles or (up to 2) blastocysts are transferred to the uterus, transvaginally under transabdominal ultrasound guidance. The success of this approach depends on precise timing of the initiation and conclusion of “prolonged coasting”. If started too early, follicle growth will arrest and the cycle will be lost. If commenced too late, too many follicles will be post-mature/cystic (>22mm) and as such will usually harbor abnormal or dysmature eggs. Use of “Coasting” almost always prevents the development of severe OHSS, optimizes egg/embryo quality and avoids unnecessary cycle cancellation. If correctly implemented, the worst you will encounter is moderate OHSS and this too is relatively uncommon.
2. EMBRYO FREEZING AND DEFERMENT OF EMBRYO TRANSFEDR (ET): OHSS is always a self-limiting condition. In the absence of continued exposure to hCG, symptoms and signs as well as the risk of severe complications will ultimately abate. Thus, in the absence of pregnancy, all symptoms, signs and risks associated with OHSS will disappear within about 10-14 days of the hCG trigger. Conversely, since early pregnancy is always accompanied by a rapid and progressive rise in hCG , the severity of OHSS will increase until about the 9th or tenth gestational week whereupon a transition from ovarian to placental hormonal dominance occurs, the severity of OHSS rapidly diminishes and the patient will be out of risk. Accordingly, in cases where in spite of best effort to prevent OHSS, the woman develops symptoms and signs of progressive overstimulation prior to planned ET, all the blastocysts should be vitrified and cryostored for FET in a subsequent hormone replacement cycle. In this way women with OHSS can be spared the risk of the condition spiraling out of control.
I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com . Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.
· The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
· Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
· IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
· The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
· Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
· Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
· Egg Maturation in IVF: How Egg “Immaturity”, “Post-maturity” and “Dysmaturity” Influence IVF Outcome:
· Commonly Asked Question in IVF: “Why Did so Few of my Eggs Fertilize and, so Many Fail to Reach Blastocyst?”
· Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
· The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
· Taking A Fresh Look at Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS), its Presentation, Prevention and Management
· Preventing Severe Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) with “Prolonged Coasting”
· Understanding Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and the Need to Customize Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
· “Triggering” Egg Maturation in IVF: Comparing urine-derived hCG, Recombinant DNA-hCG and GnRH-agonist:
· The “Lupron Trigger” to Prevent Severe OHSS: What are the Pro’s and Con’s?
• .Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
• Implications of “Empty Follicle Syndrome and “Premature Luteinization”
• Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
• Preventing Severe Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) with “Prolonged Coasting”

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .
*FYI
The 4th edition of my newest book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.
Geoffrey Sher MD

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Mel

Hello Dr Sher,

I’ve been reading about your opinion about not recommending Metformin unless the patient has diabetes or other blood sugar issue. I’ve heard of various clinics recommending it for egg quality and miscarriage prevention even if the patient isn’t diabetic… kind of a shot in the dark I think. In your opinion is there any harm in taking “low dose” (500mg/day) for the above stated purposes? What’s the reason you don’t recommend it? Thank you

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Possibly no harm done…but there is likely also no benefit in the absence of insulin resistance…in my opinion.

Geoff Sher

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megan

Hi Dr. Sher,
I received a positive beta of 423 around 11 days post transfer of a 5 day, PGS tested embryo. Two days later, it rose to 1332. I haven’t had my first U/S yet and I am terrified something is wrong because the numbers jumped so much. What are your thoughts on this? I hope I am over-reacting. Thanks for your time.

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megan

Just got back from my U/S and one yolk so one babe. I also had bleeding last night and thought it was a miscarriage / start of my period. But my US showed everything was okay at 5 weeks. Go back in a week and hope to see the heart beat. Do you see a lot of patients with bleeding? I wouldn’t consider it spotting. But it stopped within an hour and nothing on the endometrin stick or the ultrasound probe this morning.

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Vaginal bleeding occurs in about 25% of all pregnancies. When it happens, it almost invariably raises the concern of pregnancy loss (miscarriage). Bleeding can also be a sign of a tubal (ectopic) pregnancy, and in cases where the distended Fallopian tube ruptures it can precipitate a life-threatening crises. However, a small amount of painless vaginal bleeding can also be the result of normal embryo implantation (i.e. implantation bleeding) or it can result a local erosion of the vagina or cervix and/or trauma during intercourse.
Notwithstanding, in virtually all cases the occurrence of early pregnancy vaginal bleeding congers concerns or even alarm regarding the possibility of miscarriage. And when this happens to women who conceived following infertility treatment, the alarm often turns into panic. However, the truth is that in most such cases the bleeding soon stops and the pregnancy proceeds unabated to the birth of a healthy baby. However, because some do progress and end in miscarriage, and in most cases, only time will tell how things will ultimately turn out, we use the term “threatened miscarriage” to describe such early bleeding. The term “inevitable miscarriage” is used once symptoms and signs confirm a miscarriage is in progress. The term “complete miscarriage” is used if all products of conception are passed, leaving the uterus “empty”. An “incomplete miscarriage” refers to cases where some products remain retained in the uterus.
Miscarriage: Mild painless vaginal bleeding (often referred to as “spotting”) is usually due to hormonally induced eversion of the glandular cells that line the inner cervical canal, such that erosion develops on the outer part of the cervix that protrudes onto the vagina. The everted glandular tissue is fragile and susceptible to contact trauma, brought about sexual penetration or the insertion of vaginal suppositories. Since such local bleeding does not involve the developing conceptus located inside the uterus it is almost always innocuous. The diagnosis of a local cause of bleeding requires visual inspection of the vagina and cervical inlet a speculum examination. Thereupon, provided that the pregnancy has advanced beyond 5-6 weeks, a concomitant sonogram could confirm the presence of an unaffected pregnancy. Patients are advised to be more careful in inserting vaginal suppositories and to avoid sexual penetration until the bleeding has stopped for at least 1 week.
Sometimes bleeding occurs behind the conceptus inside the uterus (retrochorionic bleeding). Some blood will usually track down through the cervix and into the vagina. A speculum examination will often reveal blood tracking into the vagina through the cervical canal and a sonogram will reveal the presence of a retrochorionic blood clot. Although such retrochorionic bleeding can become an inevitable miscarriage, it often abates and over time the blood clot in the uterus absorbs, and the pregnancy continues normally. Treatment involves careful observation, avoidance of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications, bed rest and avoidance of vaginal penetration until the condition stabilizes, is essential.
While mild painless vaginal bleeding is usually innocuous, bright red bleeding that increases in amount and is accompanied by escalating pain is another matter altogether. It often suggests an impending inevitable miscarriage.
Before the 7th week of pregnancy a normally rising blood hCG (pregnancy hormone) titers is a comforting indicator that the pregnancy is more than likely progressing normally. Likewise, the detection of a normal heartbeat detected by ultrasound examination done after the 7th week of pregnancy is a very reassuring finding. However, even such findings by no means exclude the possibility of an inevitable miscarriage.
The causes of a miscarriage are multiple and diverse. However in most cases it is due to the developing conceptus being chromosomally/genetically abnormal. However, early miscarriages that reoccur more than twice in a row (Recurrent Pregnancy Loss-RPL) often suggest of an underlying implantation problem that could be due to a poorly developed uterine lining (endometrium) or immunologic dysfunction involving activated immune cells known as uterine natural killer (NK) and/or T-cells. Treatment requires an accurate diagnosis of the cause and selective therapy.
An ectopic pregnancy must be excluded: .Bleeding in the first 2-3 months of pregnancy especially if associated with the sudden onset of acute abdominal pain that is aggravated by movement and is accompanied by right shoulder tip pain, and light headedness or fainting could point to a bleeding ectopic pregnancy (one that is located in a Fallopian tube, outside the uterus) . The condition can be life endangering and warrants an immediate trip to the hospital as it often requires emergency surgery.
Molar pregnancy: Molar pregnancies are due to rapid overgrowth of the trophoblastic tissue that forms the placenta. Although infrequent they can cause early vaginal bleeding in pregnancy. Bleeding from molar pregnancies is often present with typical bleeding which resembles “red currents floating in a red jelly”. Bleeding from a molar pregnancy can either painful or painless. The condition is often associated with severe vomiting in early pregnancy, disproportionate enlargement of the uterus, and very elevated blood levels of hCG. Ultrasound evaluation, often reveals a rather characteristic snow-storm like image.
Patients with vaginal bleeding are often told to stay in bed. While this might reduce visible blood loss, there is no tangible evidence that it will prevent a miscarriage. Unfortunately, there is no definite treatment for this kind of bleeding in the early stages of pregnancy. Alas, in most cases only time will provide the answer.

Geoff Sher

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mrmr

so is having mthfr homozygous mutation mean that you shouldn’t take folic acid anymore and take methyl folate instead?

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Personally in my opinion either will do. The controversy that arises is whether a heparinoid like Lovenox is needed in addition or not. Discuss with your RE.

Geoff Sher

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Trish A.

Dr. Sher: What supplements do you recommend to boost fertility? I have been trying for my second child now for over 1. 5 years. I am 44 1/2 years old… I had a child at almost 42, conceived at 41 naturally. My amh was .16 then and is .08 now… I’ve heard that dhea and CoQ10 may be good and Maca? Do,you have any recommendations and dosages. Thanks so much.

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

It is important to nurture and take care of yourself mentally and physically when preparing and going through your IVF journey. This starts with trying to have a positive attitude about what you are about to go through, creating a stress support system for yourself by using tools such as visualization, acupuncture and meditation, eating the right foods taking a few supplements (see below) and balancing exercise with sufficient rest. . Not only will it help your experience but it may also help to increase your chances for IVF success
This article will focus on the role of nutritional supplements in preparing for IVF. You’ve probably wondered whether commercially available fertility supplements could help you achieve your goal. The answer is complex.
Here is my take: Nutrition is indeed a vital prerequisite for optimal reproductive function. However, a well-balanced diet that meets food preferences, coupled with modest vitamin, mineral and antioxidant supplementation (as can be found in many prenatal vitamin preparations) should suffice.
This having been said, conceiving is a delicate process, and eating the right foods is essential to optimize reproductive potential. Indeed, a balanced diet (i.e. a lot of organic and brightly colored foods) will provide most of the nutrients you need. But the truth is that most people do not have a balanced diet and are unwittingly often deficient in important nutrients.
A balanced diet is one that is rich in good quality protein, low in sugar, salt, caffeine and industrially created trans-fats (trans-fatty acids or partially hydrogenated oils) and soy, uncontaminated by heavy metals, free of nicotine, alcohol and recreational drugs. This is why routine supplementation with the following nutrients could enhance preconception readiness:
• Folic acid (400 micrograms daily)
• Vitamins D-3 1,000U daily; Viamin A (2565 IU daily); B6 (6mg -10 mg daily); B12 (12-20 mcg per day); C- (2,000 mg a day for both men and women); E (both sexes should get 150-200U daily)
• Co-enzyme Q10 (400-600mg daily )
• Amino acids such as L-Carnitine (3 grams daily) and L-arginine (1 gram per day )
• Omega 3 fatty acids (2,000mg per day)
• Minerals, mainly zinc (15mg per day); selenium (70-100mcg per day); iron (up to 20mg per day ); magnesium (400mg per day )
There are likely to be significant reproductive health benefits (including enhanced fertility and intrauterine development) associated with the use of nutritional supplements. However there are also certain potential pitfalls associated with their use. Some supplements are not as safe as they would seem. For example, excessive intake of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) can even be dangerous to your health and may be associated with fetal malformations.
Additionally, numerous supplements have been found to contain contaminants such as toxic plant materials, heavy metals and even prescription medications that can compromise fetal development. Prior to the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, supplements (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and botanicals) were required to demonstrate safety. However, since passage of “the Act”, they are now presumed to be safe until shown otherwise, thus establishing a rather hazardous situation where a typical prenatal vitamin that will provide sufficient vitamins and minerals for a healthy early pregnancy and potentially dangerous supplements can and are being sold in the same store without product liability.
What about the use of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)? DHEA is a male hormone supplement that is metabolized to androstenedione and testosterone in the ovaries. While a small amount of ovarian testosterone is needed for optimal follicle and egg development, too much testosterone could be decidedly harmful. DHEA supplements probably won’t do harm if taken by healthy young women who have normal ovarian reserve, but they probably would not derive any benefit either. However, in my opinion, DHEA supplementation could be potentially harmful when taken by women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), women who have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and older women in their 40’s as such women often already tend to have increased LH-activity, leading to increased ovarian testosterone. Additional ovarian testosterone in such women, could thus potentially compromise follicle development and egg quality/competency.
In summary: Maximizing reproductive performance and optimizing outcome following fertility treatment requires a combined strategy involving a balanced diet (rich in protein, low in sugars, soy and trans-fats), modest nutritional supplementation, limiting/avoiding foods and contaminants that can compromise reproductive potential, and adopting disciplined lifestyle modification such as not smoking, reducing stress, minimizing alcohol intake, avoiding nicotine and recreational drug consumption, and getting down to a healthy weight through diet and exercise.

Based on your age (44y) and the fact that you have severely diminished ovarian reserve (AMH=<0.1) you need to consider doing IVF with egg donation, preferentially.Using own eggs is a poor option. However, if in spite of the fact that you are unlikely to succeed readily with own eggs, you still insist on trying, then please consider the following:

The older a woman becomes, the more likely it is that her eggs will be chromosomally/genetically "incompetent" (not have the potential upon being fertilized and transferred, to result in a viable pregnancy). That is why, the likelihood of failure to conceive, miscarrying and of giving birth to a chromosomally defective child (e.g. with Down Syndrome) increases with the woman’s advancing age. In addition, as women age beyond 35Y there is commonly a progressive diminution in the number of eggs left in the ovaries, i.e. diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). So it is that older women as well as those who (regardless of age) have DOR have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production of LH biological activity which can result in excessive LH-induced ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production which in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.
While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the age-related effect on the woman’s “biological clock, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.
I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in older women and those with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy
Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
• A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers Should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
• Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
• Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
• Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It Should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
• Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
• PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
• PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
• Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
• IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

*FYI
The 4th edition of my newest book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

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Trish A.

Thank you Dr. Sher. To confirm, I should stop taking DHEA in your opinion, correct? Also, I am currently being monitored by my RE and taking ovidrel upon getting a mature follicle and doing IUIs. Can I still be successful in achieving a pregnancy this way? I do not want to use a donor egg! My amh is .08, but I did have very low vitamin d at the time of the test and was very heavy so could it be inaccurate? Lastly, do you think I would be more successful trying IVF? In the past year when I was taking fertility shots, I never made more than 1 or 2 mature follicles so I wasn’t a candidate for ivf. I was taking gonalf and menopur…** Lastly, but very importantly, what is the agonist/ antagonist protocol with hcg for IVF? Can you outline this for me in detail and what medications it involves. I am desperate to conceive another healthy child..

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Hi Trish!

We would need to talk directly for me to address all these issues comprehensively!

you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com. You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

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Trish A.

Thank you, Dr. Sher. I will look to schedule a SKYPE consultation with you.

S Datta

Dear Dr. Sher, I have a specific problem and need your advice. I have been going through IVF, transfer was cancelled in fresh cycle due to high progesterone already on day 12 (egg pick up was day 15). The first FET failed, but progesterone was not measured in that cycle after day 2. The cycle again transfer is cancelled due to high Prog (12.54) on day 13, transfer was scheduled for day 17. I am taking only estradiol (step-wise increase from day 2) and few supplements (L-arg, sildenafil 25, vits etc) for lining. Please advice how to proceed differently in next cycle. I only have two more day 3 frozen embryo left (originally 4 were frozen on day 3).
Thanks in advance.

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

In my opinion, the issue probably has to do with the method usde and implementation of ovarian stimulation. You seem to be having premature luteinization (see below).

Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
• A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
• Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
• Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
• Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
• Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
• PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
• PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
• Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
• IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

*FYI
The 4th edition of my newest book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

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Abi

Hi Dr Sher, I thought I should update you since you helped answer a lot of my questions over xmas when my RE was away. I did your agonist/antagonist conversion protocol, but my RE was not happy for me to do it. I insisted and he capitulated. Anyhow, I had egg retrieval on Thursday. I triggered when my follicles were 14.5, 18 and 19mm. We got 3 eggs and all 3 were mature, but my RE refused to do ICSI because he said there’s nothing wrong with my husband’s sperm and because one fertilised, there was no communication problem but rather terrible eggs. One fertilised with IVF, but that lone ranger embryo is 8 cells with <5% fragmentation today on day 3. That's the BEST I have ever had after many failed IVF cycles. I don't know if it will make it, but I am happy to celebrate the small wins. As it is my only embryo, I will not be doing PGS, but I have my fingers crossed it may just be competent. Thank you for pioneering such a great protocol. I will do it again, but this time I hope my RE will let me do ICSI.

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

You are welcome Abi!

My thoughts and prayers are with/for you!

However, if this does not pan out, might I suggest we talk…

Geoff Sher
800-780-7437

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Abi

Unfortunately, my day 3 grade 1 (best) blast became 10 cells on day 4. Sadly, it’s not going to make it. I had very high hopes for your protocol, but alas it didn’t work for me. 🙁

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Mel1976

Hi Dr Sher,
My partner & I were diagnosed with a part DQ alpha gene match 01.01 & 02.01

We have had 3 natural pregnancies in 5 years resulting in 2 miscarriages and 1 Trisonomy 21.

We have since had 5 rounds of failed IVF cycles using PGD tested embryo’s with full immune protocol including LIT, IVIG, Intrallipids, high dose dexmethesone, clexane, aspirin, daily neupogen injections and progesterone in oil injections. I have also had ERA testing.

I am 41 years old, fit and healthy, eat well and take lots of vitamins, my husband is 35 and has high sperm antibodies along with poor morphology and motality.

Am I at the end of the road and should consider surrogacy?

Appreciate your reply
Thanks
Melissa.

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

No! At this point, you might not require Surrogacy. However we need to talk!]

Unless tests for immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID) are performed correctly and conducted by a one of the few reliable reproductive immunology reference laboratory in the United States, treatment will likely be unsuccessful. . In this regard it is most important that the right tests be ordered and that these be performed by a competent laboratory. There are in my opinion only a handful of reliable Reproductive Immunology Laboratories in the world and most are in the U.S.A. Also, it is my opinion that far too often, testing is inappropriate with the many redundant and incorrect tests being requested from and conducted by suboptimal laboratories. Finally for treatment to have the best chance of being successful, it is vital that the underlying type of IID (autoimmune IID versus alloimmune) be identified correctly and that the type, dosage, concentration and timing of treatments be carefully devised and implemented.
Who Should Undergo IID testing?
When it comes to who should be evaluated, the following conditions should in always raise a suspicion of an underlying IID, and trigger prompt testing:
• A diagnosis of endometriosis or the existence of symptoms suggestive of endometriosis (heavy/painful menstruation and pain with ovulation or with deep penetration during intercourse) I would however emphasize that a definitive diagnosis of endometriosis requires visualization of the lesions at laparoscopy or laparotomy)
• A personal or family history of autoimmune disease such as hyper/hypothyroidism (as those with elevated or depressed TSH blood levels, regardless of thyroid hormonal dysfunction), Lupus erythematosus, Rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, scleroderma etc.)
• “Unexplained” infertility
• Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)
• A history of having miscarried a conceptus that, upon testing of products of conception, was found to have a normal numerical chromosomal configuration (euploid).
• Unexplained IVF failure
• “Unexplained” intrauterine growth retardation due to placental insufficiency or late pregnancy loss of a chromosomally normal baby
What Parameters should be tested?
In my opinion, too many Reproductive Immunologists unnecessarily unload a barrage of costly IID tests on unsuspecting patients. In most cases the initial test should be for NK cell activation, and only if this is positive, is it necessary to expand the testing.
The parameters that require measurement include:
o For Autoimmune Implantation Dysfunction: Autoimmune implantation dysfunction, most commonly presents with presumed “infertility” due to such early pregnancy losses that the woman did not even know she was pregnant in the first place. Sometimes there as an early miscarriage. Tests required are: a) blood levels of all IgA, IgG and IgM-related antiphospholipid antibodies (APA’s) directed against six or seven specific phospholipids, b) both antithyroid antibodies (antithyroid and antimicrosomal antibodies), c) a comprehensive reproductive immunophenotype (RIP) and, c) most importantly, assessment of Natural Killer (NK) cell activity (rather than concentration) by measuring by their killing, using the K-562 target cell test and/or uterine cytokine measurement. As far as the ideal environment for performing such tests, it is important to recognize that currently there are only about 5 or 6, Reproductive Immunology Reference Laboratories in the U.S capable of reliably analyzing the required elements with a sufficient degree of sensitivity and specificity (in my opinion).
o For Alloimmune implantation Dysfunction: While alloimmune Implantation usually presents with a history of unexplained (usually repeated) miscarriages or secondary infertility (where the woman conceived initially and thereupon was either unable to conceive started having repeated miscarriages it can also present as “presumed” primary infertility. Alloimmune dysfunction is diagnosed by testing the blood of both the male and female partners for matching DQ alpha genes and NK/CTL activation. It is important to note that any DQ alpha match (partial or complete) will only result in IID when there is concomitant NK/CTL activation (see elsewhere on this blog).
How should results be interpreted?
Central to making a diagnosis of an immunologic implantation dysfunction is the appropriate interpretation of natural killer cell activity (NKa) .In this regard, one of the commonest and most serious errors, is to regard the blood concentration of natural killer cells as being significant. Rather it is the activity (toxicity) of NK cells that matters as mentioned. Then there is the interpretation of reported results. The most important consideration is the percentage of target cells “killed” in the “native state”. In most cases a level of >10% killing should be regarded with suspicion and >12% overtly abnormal. In my opinion, trying to interpret the effect of adding IVIG or Intralipid to the sample in order assess whether and to what degree the use of these products would have a therapeutic benefit is seriously flawed and of little benefit. Clinically relevant NK cell deactivation can only be significantly effected in vivo and takes more than a week following infusion to occur. Thus what happens in the laboratory by adding these products to the sample prior to K-562 target cell testing is in my opinion likely irrelevant.
There exists a pervasive but blatant misconception on the part of many, that the addition of Intralipid (IL) /immunoglobulin-G IVIG) can have an immediate down-regulatory effect on NK cell activity. This has established a demand that Reproductive Immunology Reference Laboratories report on NK cell activity before and following exposure to IVIG and/or IL. However, the fact is that activated “functional” NK cells (NKa) cannot be deactivated in the laboratory. Effective down-regulation of activated NK cells can only be adequately accomplished if their activated “progenitor/parental” NK cells are first down-regulated. Thereupon once these down-regulated “precursor” NK cells are exposed to progesterone, they will begin spawning normal and functional NK cells, which takes about 10-14 days. It follows that to assess for a therapeutic response to IVIG/IL therapy would require that the patient first be treated (10-14 days prior to embryo transfer) and thereupon, about 2 weeks later, be retested. While at 1st glance this might seem to be a reasonable approach, in reality it would be of little clinical benefit because even if blood were to be drawn 10 -14 days after IL/IVIG treatment it would require an additional 10 days to receive results from the laboratory, by which time it would be far too late to be of practical advantage.
Neither IVIG nor IL is capable of significantly suppressing already activated “functional NK cells”. For this to happen, the IL/IVIG would have to down-regulate progenitor (parent) NK cell” activity. Thus, it should be infused 10-14 several prior to ovulation or progesterone administration so that the down-regulated “progenitor/precursor” NK cells” can propagate a sufficient number of normally regulated “functional NK cell” to be present at the implantation site 7 days later. In addition, to be effective, IL/IVIG therapy needs to be combined with steroid (dexamethasone/prednisone/prednisolone) therapy to down-regulates (often) concomitantly activated T-cells.
I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements for Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
• The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 1-Background
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
• Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 3-Treatment
• Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management 🙁 Case Report)
• Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; how it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
• Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!

If you are interested in seeking my advice or services, I urge you to contact my concierge, Julie Dahan ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also contact Julie by phone or via email at 702-533-2691/ Julied@sherivf.com You can also apply online at http://www.SherIVF.com .

*FYI
The 4th edition of my newest book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

Geoffrey Sher MD

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Mel1976

Thanks Dr Sher for your prompt reply. I have sent an email to Julie and am waiting for a reply to arrange a Skype consult. Thank you
Melissa.

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