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Dear Patients,

I created this forum to welcome any questions you have on the topic of infertility, IVF, conception, testing, evaluation, or any related topics. I do my best to answer all questions in less than 24 hours. I know your question is important and, in many cases, I will answer within just a few hours. Thank you for taking the time to trust me with your concern.

– Geoffrey Sher, MD

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19,802 Comments

Kris

Hi Dr Sher,
Is it beneficial taking breaks between ivfs if you have DOR or are back to backs acceptable? Be done 3 full stim since August 2017 and just completed three mini ivfs. I’m 38 and keen to keep going but will take a break if beneficial.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

In general, it is always a good idea to give your ovaries at least a 1 month break between cycles.

Geoff Sher

reply
Melissa Gtrant

This isn’t an IVF question, but related (IUI). How does is the use of Ovidrel effective when administered AFTER the lh surge is detected? I’m also finding it hard to figure out best timing, I know 36 hours after trigger shot is ideal, but because the shot is only given after I am surging I don’t understand how that affects things?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

I would not take a Lupron trigger.

Women who (regardless of age) have diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production, and/or biological activity, of LH. This can result in excessive ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production. This in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.
While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the effect of DOR, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can in my opinion, make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.
I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in women with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy
Please visit my new Blog on this very site, www. SherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
• A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers Should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
• Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
• Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
• Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It Should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
• Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
• PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
• PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
• Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
• IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview
If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my patient concierge, ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also set this up by emailing concierge@sherivf.com or by calling 702-533-2691 and/or 800-780-743. You can also enroll for a consultation with me, online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com .

Geoffrey Sher MD
I also suggest that you access the 4th edition of my book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies”. It is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Respectfully Melisa,

In my opinion, giving Ovidrel (recombinant hCG) after the LH surge is in my opinion redundant.

Geoff Sher

reply
Kasey

Hi Dr. Sher,
My husband and I have currently undergone 2 complete ivf cycles, with 2 fresh transfers. The first transfer was unsuccessful and the 2nd one we became pregnant with twins that passed away while I was 24 wks along because of a placental abruption. We just underwent a fet with a very good( what our clinic considered good) embryo. Unfortunately that ended in a miscarriage. I’ve been pregnant on my own 3 times which have all ended in miscarriage. I have endometriosis, but other than that, unexplained infertility with low amh. We have 3 frozens left and are just tired. We have already spent over $50k for 7 iui’s, 2 full ivf’s, and 1 fet. We are thinking about switching clinics and are interested in yours. Does this sound like a challenge you are up for?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

I obviously cannot say with any confidence that I can resolve your issues. However, I certainly feel that you should be thoroughly evaluated for an implantation dysfunction before proceeding any further and I certainly am confident in saying that I can and would be able to effect this fore you.

Whenever a patient fails to achieve a viable pregnancy following embryo transfer (ET), the first question asked is why! Was it simply due to, bad luck?, How likely is the failure to recur in future attempts and what can be done differently, to avoid it happening next time?.
It is an indisputable fact that any IVF procedure is at least as likely to fail as it is to succeed. Thus when it comes to outcome, luck is an undeniable factor. Notwithstanding, it is incumbent upon the treating physician to carefully consider and address the causes of IVF failure before proceeding to another attempt:
1. Age: The chance of a woman under 35Y of age having a baby per embryo transfer is about 35-40%. From there it declines progressively to under 5% by the time she reaches her mid-forties. This is largely due to declining chromosomal integrity of the eggs with advancing age…”a wear and tear effect” on eggs that are in the ovaries from birth.
2. Embryo Quality/”competency (capable of propagating a viable pregnancy)”. As stated, the woman’s age plays a big role in determining egg/embryo quality/”competency”. This having been said, aside from age the protocol used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is the next most important factor. It is especially important when it comes to older women, and women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) where it becomes essential to be aggressive, and to customize and individualize the ovarian stimulation protocol.
We used to believe that the uterine environment is more beneficial to embryo development than is the incubator/petri dish and that accordingly, the earlier on in development that embryos are transferred to the uterus, the better. To achieve this goal, we used to select embryos for transfer based upon their day two or microscopic appearance (“grade”). But we have since learned that the further an embryo has advanced in its development, the more likely it is to be “competent” and that embryos failing to reach the expanded blastocyst stage within 5-6 days of being fertilized are almost invariably “incompetent” and are unworthy of being transferred. Moreover, the introduction into clinical practice about a decade ago, (by Levent Keskintepe PhD and myself) of Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS), which assesses for the presence of all the embryos chromosomes (complete chromosomal karyotyping), provides another tool by which to select the most “competent” embryos for transfer. This methodology has selective benefit when it comes to older women, women with DOR, cases of unexplained repeated IVF failure and women who experience recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).
3. The number of the embryos transferred: Most patients believe that the more embryos transferred the greater the chance of success. To some extent this might be true, but if the problem lies with the use of a suboptimal COS protocol, transferring more embryos at a time won’t improve the chance of success. Nor will the transfer of a greater number of embryos solve an underlying embryo implantation dysfunction (anatomical molecular or immunologic).Moreover, the transfer of multiple embryos, should they implant, can and all too often does result in triplets or greater (high order multiples) which increases the incidence of maternal pregnancy-induced complications and of premature delivery with its serious risks to the newborn. It is for this reason that I rarely recommend the transfer of more than 2 embryos at a time and am moving in the direction of advising single embryo transfers …especially when it comes to transferring embryos derived through the fertilization of eggs from young women.
4. Implantation Dysfunction (ID): Implantation dysfunction is a very common (often overlooked) cause of “unexplained” IVF failure. This is especially the case in young ovulating women who have normal ovarian reserve and have fertile partners. Failure to identify, typify, and address such issues is, in my opinion, an unfortunate and relatively common cause of repeated IVF failure in such women. Common sense dictates that if ultrasound guided embryo transfer is performed competently and yet repeated IVF attempts fail to propagate a viable pregnancy, implantation dysfunction must be seriously considered. Yet ID is probably the most overlooked factor. The most common causes of implantation dysfunction are:
a. A“ thin uterine lining”
b. A uterus with surface lesions in the cavity (polyps, fibroids, scar tissue)
c. Immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID)
d. Endocrine/molecular endometrial receptivity issues
Certain causes of infertility are repetitive and thus cannot readily be reversed. Examples include advanced age of the woman; severe male infertility; immunologic infertility associated with alloimmune implantation dysfunction (especially if it is a “complete DQ alpha genetic match between partners plus uterine natural killer cell activation (NKa).
I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements for Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
• Ovarian Stimulation in Women Who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): Introducing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion protocol
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• IVF: How Many Attempts should be considered before Stopping?
• “Unexplained” Infertility: Often a matter of the Diagnosis Being Overlooked!
• IVF Failure and Implantation Dysfunction:
• The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 1-Background
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
• Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 3-Treatment
• Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management 🙁 Case Report)
• Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; how it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
• Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
• Endometrial Thickness, Uterine Pathology and Immunologic Factors
• Vaginally Administered Viagra is Often a Highly Effective Treatment to Help Thicken a Thin Uterine Lining
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF?
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF

If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my patient concierge, ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also set this up by emailing concierge@sherivf.com or by calling 702-533-2691 and/or 800-780-743. You can also enroll for a consultation with me, online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com .

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Maribelle Smith

Hi Dr. 43 – no fertility issues – started child planning late in life. 2nd iVF , 3 day fresh egg transfer on 10/11/18.
First HCG on 10/19/18 : 19
2nd HCG on 10/26/18 ; 105
Is this normal. My Dr. seemed a bit wary. She was hoping this would be higher. I thought it was normal…Is this normal rate? or should it be much higher?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

No it does not mean that you are a hopeless case but, consider the following:

Women who (regardless of age) have diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production, and/or biological activity, of LH. This can result in excessive ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production. This in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.
While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the effect of DOR, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can in my opinion, make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.
I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in women with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy
Please visit my new Blog on this very site, www. SherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
• A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers Should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
• Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
• Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
• Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It Should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
• Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
• PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
• PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
• Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
• IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview
If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my patient concierge, ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also set this up by emailing concierge@sherivf.com or by calling 702-533-2691 and/or 800-780-743. You can also enroll for a consultation with me, online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com .

Geoffrey Sher MD
I also suggest that you access the 4th edition of my book ,”In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies”. It is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com or from most bookstores and public libraries.

reply
Sterling

Hi Dr. Sher,

I currently have 2 frozen day 7 embryos that tested PGS normal. What in your opinion is the chance/percentage of implantation compared to a day 5/6 embryo? I am debating on whether to transfer 1 or 2. I will be doing a natural transfer cycle.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Respectfully Sterling, I don’t hold out much hope for day-7 embryos, regardless of their PGS-status.

Sorry!

Geoff Sher

reply
Hope

Hi Dr. Sher. I’m 38 and have DOR. Currently on an IVF cycle where I’ve managed to produce 3 follicles with low doses. We are going ahead with retrieval since my chances of producing more follicles are slim. I’m triggering in a couple days. Question: should I trigger with Lupron, HCG or a combo of both? I’ve always triggered with HCG before (IUIs) and have heard the Lupron trigger is used to prevent OHSS (not my case). But the doctor is suggesting Lupron this time as an alternative. I’m worried about having a “weak” ovulation and retrieving empty follicles. Which trigger should I choose and what dose(s)? Thanks!

reply
Baskar

My wife got Et on 11th oct 2018, on 26th oct we checked BHCG the value is 80, wt is that mean, is it positive or negative

reply
selin

Dr. Sher,
I am thinking a lot and don’t know what to do. I am worrying that a third ivf cycle increases my risk of getting cancer, especially breastcancer. My concerns are, because my mother got breast cancer, I will get a preearly menopause like her and I have already gotten a very high dosage those two times. I would like to do a third retrieval in order to freeze more embryos. What do you think? Are there any concerns?

Thanks

reply
O. Sahin

hi dr sher
i had fet 8.10.18
my beta results 8dpt 96
10dpt 177
11dpt(1day later) 248
13dpt 440
15dpt 876
i guess it is €_85 doubling and
doubling time around 53 hoırs.
bıt my doctor still wants another betahcg blood test.
why does he concerne?
is this doubling time not enough?
is this level too low 15day after transfer
next weekend utrasoumd time but i ask for the week after next. because i think my baby a little bit lazy amd late so if i cant see sac and yolk this early i will be devistated.
my doctor doesnt give me hope why?

reply
O. Sahin

and dr sher i have estrofem 3*1
progestane 200mg vajinall suppozitory 3*1
prednole 5mg 2*2
clexane 1*1
do i have anything to do? should i take more progesterone or something anything?
ı thougt my tsh under control, every 6day i have test.. my level in thuesday 4.62 it went up from 0.8 in one week i immediatly changed my dose up. every week i have intralipid for hashimato. did this tsh give any harm in one week or does this low beta hcg have something about this tsh?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

The only concern I have is the Hashimoto’s!

Between 2% and 5% of women of the childbearing age have reduced thyroid hormone activity (hypothyroidism). Women with hypothyroidism often manifest with reproductive failure i.e. infertility, unexplained (often repeated) IVF failure, or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The condition is 5-10 times more common in women than in men. In most cases hypothyroidism is caused by damage to the thyroid gland resulting from of thyroid autoimmunity (Hashimoto’s disease) caused by damage done to the thyroid gland by antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal auto-antibodies.
The increased prevalence of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) in women is likely the result of a combination of genetic factors, estrogen-related effects and chromosome X abnormalities. This having been said, there is significantly increased incidence of thyroid antibodies in non-pregnant women with a history of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss and thyroid antibodies can be present asymptomatically in women without them manifesting with overt clinical or endocrinologic evidence of thyroid disease. In addition, these antibodies may persist in women who have suffered from hyper- or hypothyroidism even after normalization of their thyroid function by appropriate pharmacological treatment. The manifestations of reproductive dysfunction thus seem to be linked more to the presence of thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) than to clinical existence of hypothyroidism and treatment of the latter does not routinely result in a subsequent improvement in reproductive performance.
It follows, that if antithyroid autoantibodies are associated with reproductive dysfunction they may serve as useful markers for predicting poor outcome in patients undergoing assisted reproductive technologies.
Some years back, I reported on the fact that 47% of women who harbor thyroid autoantibodies, regardless of the absence or presence of clinical hypothyroidism, have activated uterine natural killer cells (NKa) cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) and that such women often present with reproductive dysfunction. We demonstrated that appropriate immunotherapy with IVIG or intralipid (IL) and steroids, subsequently often results in a significant improvement in reproductive performance in such cases.
The fact that almost 50% of women who harbor antithyroid antibodies do not have activated CTL/NK cells suggests that it is NOT the antithyroid antibodies themselves that cause reproductive dysfunction. The activation of CTL and NK cells that occurs in half of the cases with TAI is probably an epiphenomenon with the associated reproductive dysfunction being due to CTL/NK cell activation that damages the early “root system” (trophoblast) of the implanting embryo. We have shown that treatment of those women who have thyroid antibodies NKa/CTL using IL/steroids, improves subsequent reproductive performance while women with thyroid antibodies who do not harbor NKa/CTL do not require or benefit from such treatment.

Geoff Sher

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

I would do an US on Monday…that should be definitive. I have a hunch that all will turn out well!

Good luck!

Geoff Sher

reply
Kiki Mollin

Dear doctor Sher,
I had a short protocol (12 days) using organutral and rekovelle (this medication was part of a study), 36 hours before retrieval trigger shot pregnyl 5000 is, I had 9 follicles that held 8 mature eggs.
My doctor said that there definitely was room for improvement, and for my second cycle, he put me on a long protocol (6 weeks) using gonapeptyl and menopur, pregnyl trigger shot 5000 Iu, 36 hours before retrieval, I had 16 nice looking follicles on ultrasound check up.
During my egg retrieval , I was told you have very stubborn eggs, I can’t seem to flush them out, they flushed my follicles 3 times, and only collected 4 eggs.
After the flush the doctor that did the retrieval, said: I’m sorry, I have no idea what happened, I can’t explain why almost all of your 16 aspirated follicles are empty, I’ve never experienced an egg retrieval like yours!!!
Can you please give me any explanation for my many empty follicles?

reply
Kelli B

Thank you Dr. Sher for your response.

The endocrinologist did the thyroid peroxidase antibodies test and my result was 0.30 and she noted I tested negative for all ab testing, T3 & T4 were normal as well. Basically she ran every possible test regarding my thyroid to determine if there were any causes for the hypothyroid I developed after my 2nd cycle. Before each cycle my TSH were 1.40 and 1.6 respectively. This is another reason she had no concern regarding my thyroid and said this was all a result of the IVF meds. I have already purchased the meds for the upcoming cycle including the Lupron, and wouldn’t want to be at a financial lose at this point. If this next cycle yields poor results, I am going to just proceed with transferring the one embryo we have and look into the protocol you suggested later down the line.
Thank you for the links!
-Kelli

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

This is good!

I aplaud your RE for doing the groundwork.

I also concur with your decision.

Geoff Sher

reply
Miranda

Sorry Dr. let me add to that. My transfer was October 1st and it was a 3 day blastocyst. I had light spotting on Thursday October 11. First beta October 12 second October 16 and third October 18.

Miranda

Doctor wanted to ask what you think of ovary pain after frozen embryo transfer? I’m not even sure it’s my ovary but it’s a terrible pain on my left side. I also feel very bloated.

Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Respectfully, in my opinion, 5000U of hCG (Pregnyl) is too l;ow a dosage to gtrigger optimal egg maturation (meiosis). I recommend double the dosage. This could at least in part explain your egg quality/competency issues and the empty follicles too.

Frequently, when following vigorous and often repeated flushing of follicles at egg retrieval they fail to yield eggs, it is ascribed to “Empty Follicle Syndrome.” This is a gross misnomer, because all follicles contain eggs. So why were no eggs retrieved from the follicles? Most likely it was because they would/could not yield the eggs they harbored.
This situation is most commonly seen in older women, women who have severely diminished ovarian reserve, and in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). In my opinion it is often preventable when an optimal, individualized and strategic protocol for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is employed and the correct timing and dosage is applied to the “hCG trigger shot.”
Normally, following optimal ovarian stimulation, the hCG “trigger shot” is given for the purpose of it triggering meiosis (reproductive division) that is intended to halve the number of chromosomes from 46 to 23 within 32-36 hours. The hCG trigger also enables the egg to signal the “cumulus cells” that bind it firmly to the inner wall of the follicle (through enzymatic activity), to loosen or disperse, so that the egg can detach and readily be captured at egg retrieval (ER).
Ordinarily, normal eggs (and even those with only one or two chromosomal irregularities) will readily detach and be captured with the very first attempt to empty a follicle. Eggs that have several chromosomal numerical abnormalities (i.e., are “complex aneuploid”) are often unable to facilitate this process. This explains why when the egg is complex aneuploid, its follicle will not yield an egg…and why, when it requires repeated flushing of a follicle to harvest an egg, it is highly suggestive of it being aneuploid and thus “incompetent” (i.e., incapable of subsequently propagating a normal embryo).
Older women, women with diminished ovarian reserve, and those with polycystic ovarian syndrome, tend to have more biologically active LH in circulation. LH causes production of male hormone (androgens, predominantly testosterone), by ovarian connective tissue (stroma/theca). A little testosterone is needed for optimal follicle development and for FSH-induced ovogenesis (egg development). Too much LH activity compromises the latter, and eggs so affected are far more likely to be aneuploid following meiosis.
Women with the above conditions have increased LH activity and are thus more likely to produce excessive ovarian testosterone. It follows that sustained, premature elevations in LH or premature luteinization (often referred to as a “premature LH surge”) will prejudice egg development. Such compromised eggs are much more likely to end up being complex aneuploid following the administration of the hCG trigger, leading to fruitless attempts at retrieval and the so called “empty follicle syndrome.”
The developing eggs of women who have increased LH activity (older women, women with diminished ovarian reserve, and those with PCOS) are inordinately vulnerable to the effects of protracted exposure to LH-induced ovarian testosterone. Because of this, the administration of medications that provoke further pituitary LH release (e.g., clomiphene and Letrozole), drugs that contain LH or hCG (e.g., Menopur), or protocols of ovarian stimulation that provoke increased exposure to the woman’s own pituitary LH (e.g., “flare-agonist protocols”) and the use of “late pituitary blockade” (antagonist) protocols can be prejudicial.
The importance of individualizing COS protocol selection, precision with regard to the dosage and type of hCG trigger used, and the timing of its administration in such cases cannot be overstated. The ideal dosage of urinary-derived hCG (hCG-u) such as Novarel, Pregnyl and Profasi is 10,000U. When recombinant DNA-derived hCG (hCG-r) such as Ovidrel is used, the optimal dosage is 500mcg. A lower dosage of hCG can, by compromising meiosis, increase the risk of egg aneuploidy, and thus of IVF outcome.
There is in my opinion no such condition as “Empty Follicle Syndrome.” All follicles contain eggs. Failure to access those eggs at ER can often be a result of the protocol used for controlled ovarian stimulation.

Geoff Sher

reply
Stefanie

Dr. Sher, what are your thoughts on the use of high-dose cabergoline for the prevention of OHSS (0.5mg daily x 7 days initiated day of trigger). Specifically, in a patient at risk for OHSS based on high follicle count and estrogen level less than 2000 on the day of trigger. If you use this, do you find that your patients tolerate this dosage strength and duration of therapy?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

I am frankly not a believer. There are in my opinion, better ways to prevent OHSS.

Women like yourself are at risk that ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins will result in the, of development of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a life-endangering condition that is often accompanied by a profound reduction in egg “competency” and on fertilization often yield an inordinately high percentage of “incompetent” embryos which have a reduced potential to propagate viable pregnancies.
Concern that a patient will develop of OHSS often leads the treating RE to take measures aimed at reducing the risk of this life-endangering condition. One such measures is to “trigger” egg maturation prematurely in the hope of arresting further follicular growth and the other, is to initiate the “trigger” with a reduced dosage of hCG (i.ed. 5,000U rather than the usual 10,000U of of Pregnyl/Profasi/Novarel, to use or 250mcg rather than 500mcg of Ovidrel or to supplant the hCG “trigger” with a Lupron “trigger” which causes a prompt LH surge from the woman’s pituitary gland to take place. While such measures do indeed reduce the risk of OHSS to the mother, this often comes at the expense of egg quantity and “competency”. Fewer than the anticipated number of eggs are harvested and those that are retrieved are far more likely to be “immature” and chromosomally abnormal (aneuploid”), or “immature” , thereby significantly compromising IVF outcome.
Against this background, It is my considered opinion that when it comes to performing IVF in women at risk of developing OHSS, the most important consideration must be the selection and proper implementation of an individualized or customized ovarian stimulation protocol. Thereupon, rather than prematurely initiating the “trigger” to arrest further follicle growth, administering a reduced dosage of hCG or “triggering with a GnRH agonist (e.g. Lupron/Buserelin) that can compromise egg “competency”….. use of one of the following techniques will often markedly reduce the risk of OHSS while at the same time protecting egg quality:
1. PROLONGED COASTING…my preferred approach: My preferred approach is to use a long pituitary down-regulation protocol coming off the BCP which during the last 3 days is overlapped with the agonist, Lupron/Buserelin/Superfact. The BCP is intended to lower LH and thereby reduce stromal activation (hyperthecosis) in the hope of controlling LH-induced ovarian androgen (predominantly, testosterone) production and release. I then stimulate my PCOS patients using a low dosage of recombinant FSH-(FSHr) such as Follistim/Gonal-F/Puregon. On the 3rd day of such stimulation a smidgeon of LH/hCG (Luveris/Menopur) is added. Thereupon, starting on day 7 of ovarian stimulation, I perform serial blood estradiol (E2) and ultrasound follicle assessments, watching for the number and size of the follicles and the blood estradiol concentration [E2]. I keep stimulating (regardless of the [E2] until 50% of all follicles reach 14mm. At this point, provided the [E2] reaches at least >2,500pg/ml, I stop the agonist as well as gonadotropin stimulation and track the blood E2 concentration daily. The [E2] will almost invariably increase for a few days. I closely monitor the [E2] as it rises, plateaus and then begins to decline. As soon as the [E2] drops below 2500pg/ml (and not before then), I administer a “trigger” shot of 10,000U Profasi/ Novarel/Pregnyl or 500mcg Ovidrel/Ovitrel. This is followed by an egg retrieval, performed 36 hours later. Fertilization is accomplished using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because “coasted” eggs usually have little or no cumulus oophoris enveloping them and eggs without a cumulus will not readily fertilize naturally. Moreover, they also tend to have a “hardened” envelopment (zona pellucida), making spontaneous fertilization problematic in many cases. All fertilized eggs are cultured to the blastocyst stage (up to day 5- 6 days) and thereupon are either vitrified and preserved for subsequent transfer in later hormone replacement cycles or (up to 2) blastocysts are transferred to the uterus, transvaginally under transabdominal ultrasound guidance. The success of this approach depends on precise timing of the initiation and conclusion of “prolonged coasting”. If started too early, follicle growth will arrest and the cycle will be lost. If commenced too late, too many follicles will be post-mature/cystic (>22mm) and as such will usually harbor abnormal or dysmature eggs. Use of “Coasting” almost always prevents the development of severe OHSS, optimizes egg/embryo quality and avoids unnecessary cycle cancellation. If correctly implemented, the worst you will encounter is moderate OHSS and this too is relatively uncommon.
2. EMBRYO FREEZING AND DEFERMENT OF EMBRYO TRANSFEDR (ET): OHSS is always a self-limiting condition. In the absence of continued exposure to hCG, symptoms and signs as well as the risk of severe complications will ultimately abate. Thus, in the absence of pregnancy, all symptoms, signs and risks associated with OHSS will disappear within about 10-14 days of the hCG trigger. Conversely, since early pregnancy is always accompanied by a rapid and progressive rise in hCG , the severity of OHSS will increase until about the 9th or tenth gestational week whereupon a transition from ovarian to placental hormonal dominance occurs, the severity of OHSS rapidly diminishes and the patient will be out of risk. Accordingly, in cases where in spite of best effort to prevent OHSS, the woman develops symptoms and signs of progressive overstimulation prior to planned ET, all the blastocysts should be vitrified and cryostored for FET in a subsequent hormone replacement cycle. In this way women with OHSS can be spared the risk of the condition spiraling out of control.
I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com . Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.
· The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
· Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
· IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
· The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
· Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
· Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
· Egg Maturation in IVF: How Egg “Immaturity”, “Post-maturity” and “Dysmaturity” Influence IVF Outcome:
· Commonly Asked Question in IVF: “Why Did so Few of my Eggs Fertilize and, so Many Fail to Reach Blastocyst?”
· Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
· The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
· Taking A Fresh Look at Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS), its Presentation, Prevention and Management
· Preventing Severe Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) with “Prolonged Coasting”
· Understanding Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and the Need to Customize Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
· “Triggering” Egg Maturation in IVF: Comparing urine-derived hCG, Recombinant DNA-hCG and GnRH-agonist:
· The “Lupron Trigger” to Prevent Severe OHSS: What are the Pro’s and Con’s?
• .Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
• Implications of “Empty Follicle Syndrome and “Premature Luteinization”
• Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
• Preventing Severe Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) with “Prolonged Coasting”

If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my patient concierge, ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also set this up by emailing concierge@sherivf.com or by calling 702-533-2691 and/or 800-780-743. You can also enroll for a consultation with me, online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com .

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Melissa Jane

Hi Dr Sher, would using a gestational surrogate and donor eggs remove the issue of DQ alpha completely? Should I test both the egg donor & surrogate for a match to the sperm?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Unfortunately not! It is about your husband’s (sperm) DQa and your DQa. Not about the egg and the sperm.

Unless tests for immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID) are performed correctly and conducted by a one of the few reliable reproductive immunology reference laboratory in the United States, treatment will likely be unsuccessful. . In this regard it is most important that the right tests be ordered and that these be performed by a competent laboratory. There are in my opinion only a handful of reliable Reproductive Immunology Laboratories in the world and most are in the U.S.A. Also, it is my opinion that far too often, testing is inappropriate with the many redundant and incorrect tests being requested from and conducted by suboptimal laboratories. Finally for treatment to have the best chance of being successful, it is vital that the underlying type of IID (autoimmune IID versus alloimmune) be identified correctly and that the type, dosage, concentration and timing of treatments be carefully devised and implemented.
Who Should Undergo IID testing?
When it comes to who should be evaluated, the following conditions should in always raise a suspicion of an underlying IID, and trigger prompt testing:
• A diagnosis of endometriosis or the existence of symptoms suggestive of endometriosis (heavy/painful menstruation and pain with ovulation or with deep penetration during intercourse) I would however emphasize that a definitive diagnosis of endometriosis requires visualization of the lesions at laparoscopy or laparotomy)
• A personal or family history of autoimmune disease such as hyper/hypothyroidism (as those with elevated or depressed TSH blood levels, regardless of thyroid hormonal dysfunction), Lupus erythematosus, Rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, scleroderma etc.)
• “Unexplained” infertility
• Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)
• A history of having miscarried a conceptus that, upon testing of products of conception, was found to have a normal numerical chromosomal configuration (euploid).
• Unexplained IVF failure
• “Unexplained” intrauterine growth retardation due to placental insufficiency or late pregnancy loss of a chromosomally normal baby
What Parameters should be tested?
In my opinion, too many Reproductive Immunologists unnecessarily unload a barrage of costly IID tests on unsuspecting patients. In most cases the initial test should be for NK cell activation, and only if this is positive, is it necessary to expand the testing.
The parameters that require measurement include:
o For Autoimmune Implantation Dysfunction: Autoimmune implantation dysfunction, most commonly presents with presumed “infertility” due to such early pregnancy losses that the woman did not even know she was pregnant in the first place. Sometimes there as an early miscarriage. Tests required are: a) blood levels of all IgA, IgG and IgM-related antiphospholipid antibodies (APA’s) directed against six or seven specific phospholipids, b) both antithyroid antibodies (antithyroid and antimicrosomal antibodies), c) a comprehensive reproductive immunophenotype (RIP) and, c) most importantly, assessment of Natural Killer (NK) cell activity (rather than concentration) by measuring by their killing, using the K-562 target cell test and/or uterine cytokine measurement. As far as the ideal environment for performing such tests, it is important to recognize that currently there are only about 5 or 6, Reproductive Immunology Reference Laboratories in the U.S capable of reliably analyzing the required elements with a sufficient degree of sensitivity and specificity (in my opinion).
o For Alloimmune implantation Dysfunction: While alloimmune Implantation usually presents with a history of unexplained (usually repeated) miscarriages or secondary infertility (where the woman conceived initially and thereupon was either unable to conceive started having repeated miscarriages it can also present as “presumed” primary infertility. Alloimmune dysfunction is diagnosed by testing the blood of both the male and female partners for matching DQ alpha genes and NK/CTL activation. It is important to note that any DQ alpha match (partial or complete) will only result in IID when there is concomitant NK/CTL activation (see elsewhere on this blog).
How should results be interpreted?
Central to making a diagnosis of an immunologic implantation dysfunction is the appropriate interpretation of natural killer cell activity (NKa) .In this regard, one of the commonest and most serious errors, is to regard the blood concentration of natural killer cells as being significant. Rather it is the activity (toxicity) of NK cells that matters as mentioned. Then there is the interpretation of reported results. The most important consideration is the percentage of target cells “killed” in the “native state”. In most cases a level of >10% killing should be regarded with suspicion and >12% overtly abnormal. In my opinion, trying to interpret the effect of adding IVIG or Intralipid to the sample in order assess whether and to what degree the use of these products would have a therapeutic benefit is seriously flawed and of little benefit. Clinically relevant NK cell deactivation can only be significantly effected in vivo and takes more than a week following infusion to occur. Thus what happens in the laboratory by adding these products to the sample prior to K-562 target cell testing is in my opinion likely irrelevant.
There exists a pervasive but blatant misconception on the part of many, that the addition of Intralipid (IL) /immunoglobulin-G IVIG) can have an immediate down-regulatory effect on NK cell activity. This has established a demand that Reproductive Immunology Reference Laboratories report on NK cell activity before and following exposure to IVIG and/or IL. However, the fact is that activated “functional” NK cells (NKa) cannot be deactivated in the laboratory. Effective down-regulation of activated NK cells can only be adequately accomplished if their activated “progenitor/parental” NK cells are first down-regulated. Thereupon once these down-regulated “precursor” NK cells are exposed to progesterone, they will begin spawning normal and functional NK cells, which takes about 10-14 days. It follows that to assess for a therapeutic response to IVIG/IL therapy would require that the patient first be treated (10-14 days prior to embryo transfer) and thereupon, about 2 weeks later, be retested. While at 1st glance this might seem to be a reasonable approach, in reality it would be of little clinical benefit because even if blood were to be drawn 10 -14 days after IL/IVIG treatment it would require an additional 10 days to receive results from the laboratory, by which time it would be far too late to be of practical advantage.
Neither IVIG nor IL is capable of significantly suppressing already activated “functional NK cells”. For this to happen, the IL/IVIG would have to down-regulate progenitor (parent) NK cell” activity. Thus, it should be infused 10-14 several prior to ovulation or progesterone administration so that the down-regulated “progenitor/precursor” NK cells” can propagate a sufficient number of normally regulated “functional NK cell” to be present at the implantation site 7 days later. In addition, to be effective, IL/IVIG therapy needs to be combined with steroid (dexamethasone/prednisone/prednisolone) therapy to down-regulates (often) concomitantly activated T-cells.
I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements for Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
• The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 1-Background
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
• Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 3-Treatment
• Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management 🙁 Case Report)
• Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; how it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
• Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!

If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my patient concierge, ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also set this up by emailing concierge@sherivf.com or by calling 702-533-2691 and/or 800-780-743. You can also enroll for a consultation with me, online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com .

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Dib

I would like to start re-start IVF with my own eggs. I’ve been going out with friends and drinking alcohol very, very, very heavily over the last month (I know I’m a jackass). I’ve stopped drinking on day 3 of my cycle. I know drinking adversely effects egg quality. I would be most grateful if you could advise me how long I should wait before starting my IVF cycle – I’ve heard 2 months, others say it takes 3 months for new eggs to develop? Thank you very much.

reply
Denise

Dear Dr. Sher,
I have the MTHFR single mutation (A1298c) and PAI-1 4G/5G (heterozygous for the 4G/5G deletion/insertion allele). I have had 5 miscarriages – these losses were assumed to be due to aneuploidy, but only two were confirmed after D&C.

I just had my second FET two weeks ago and am pregnant. I have not taken Lovenox in any of my past losses and am wondering if I should with this current pregnancy.

1) How would you know if a loss was caused by a blood clot?
2) Would you recommend Lovenox for me? If so, when would you stop and start?
3) Is there any association between Lovenox and Autism?

Thanks!

reply
Lucy

Hi Dr. Sher,
I hope you are doing great! We are not at the ivf stage yet but I started femara this cycle. I had an ultrasound yesterday and they found 3 mature follicles, 2 on my right side and one on my left. I was told they all look the same size, around 16-18mm so I would possibly release 3 eggs. I have ovulated naturally from my left side the last 3 cycles. The follicle on my left looks good and black but the 2 on my right look a bit more greyish. Could that be “bad eggs” since my right ovary hasn’t been producing eggs lately or could I still release 3? I was told that I should ovulate between October 26th and the 28th. I do chart and temp and also use the Ava bracelet and so far they all say I’m going to ovulate on the 26th. If you could shed some light into this I would really appreciate it. We are considering ivf if medicated cycles don’t work. I’m 30, no fertility issues but several mcs due to low progesterone and very high Estrogen.

reply
Joy john

Please can i take DHEA suppliment to boost my egg quantity to conceieve fast.doctor say my AMH are low no enough egg .but am only 33yrs old

reply
Lucy

About an hour after my frozen egg transfer I have had severe diarrhoea lasting a couple of hours and now am fine. Will this have ruined my chances of the embryo implanting?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Your FSH of 85 coupled with your symptoms of hot flashes suggests that you are perimenopausal. If so, yopu would need egg donation. To make certain I would do an AMH blood test.

Egg donation is the process by which a woman donates eggs for purposes of assisted reproduction or biomedical research. For assisted reproduction purposes, egg donation typically involves in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology, with the eggs being fertilized in the laboratory, unfertilized eggs may be frozen and stored for later use. Egg donation is a third party reproduction as part of assisted reproductive technology (ART).
For many women, disease and/or diminished ovarian reserve precludes achieving a pregnancy with their own eggs. Since the vast majority of such women are otherwise quite healthy and physically capable of bearing a child, egg donation (ED) provides them with a realistic opportunity of going from infertility to parenthood.
Egg donation is associated with definite benefits. Firstly, in many instances, more eggs are retrieved from a young donor than would ordinarily be needed to complete a single IVF cycle. As a result, there are often supernumerary (leftover) embryos for cryopreservation and storage. Secondly, since eggs derived from a young woman are less likely than their older counterparts to produce aneuploid (chromosomally abnormal) embryos, the risk of miscarriage and birth defects such as Down’s syndrome is considerably reduced.
Egg Donation-related, fresh and frozen embryo transfer cycles account for 10%-15% of IVF performed in the United States. The vast majority of egg donation procedures performed in the U.S involve women with declining ovarian reserve. While some of these are done for premature ovarian failure, the majority are undertaken in women over 40 years of age. Recurrent IVF failure due to “poor quality” eggs or embryos is also a relatively common indication for ED in the U.S. A growing indication for ED is in cases of same-sex relationships (predominantly female) where both partners wish to share in the parenting experience by one serving as egg provider and the other, as the recipient.
Ninety percent of egg donation in the U.S is done through the solicitation of anonymous donors who are recruited through a state-licensed egg donor agency. It is less common for recipients to solicit known donors through the services of a donor agency, although this does happen on occasion. It is also not easy to find donors who are willing to enter into such an open arrangement. Accordingly, in the vast majority of cases where the services of a known donor is solicited, it is by virtue of a private arrangement. While the services of non-family members are sometimes sought, it is much more common for recipients to approach close family members to serve as their egg donor.
Some recipients feel the compulsion to know or at least to have met their egg donor, so as to gain first hand familiarity with her physical characteristics, intellect, and character. This having been said, in the U.S. it is much more common to seek the services of anonymous donors. In terms of disclosure to their family, friends and child(ren), recipients using anonymous donors tend to be far more open than those of known donors about the nature of the child’s conception. Most, if not all, egg donor agencies provide a detailed profile, photos, medical and family history of each prospective donor for the benefit and information of the recipient. Agencies generally have a website through which recipients can access donor profiles in the privacy of their own homes in order to select the ideal donor.
Interaction between the recipient and the egg donor program may be conducted in-person, by telephone or online in the initial stages. Once the choice of a donor has been narrowed down to two or three, the recipient is asked to forward all relevant medical records to their chosen IVF physician. Upon receipt of her records, a detailed medical consultation will subsequently held and a physical examination by the treating physician or by a designated alternative qualified counterpart is scheduled. This entire process is usually overseen, facilitated and orchestrated by one of the donor program’s nurse coordinators who, in concert with the treating physician, will address all clinical, financial and logistical issues, as well as answering any questions. At the same time, the final process of donor selection and donor-recipient matching is completed.
Egg donor agencies usually limit the age of egg donors to women under 35 years with normal ovarian reserve in an attempt to minimize the risk of ovarian resistance and negate adverse influence of the “biological clock” (donor age) on egg quality.
No single factor instills more confidence regarding the reproductive potential of a prospective egg donor than a history of her having previously achieved a pregnancy on her own, or that one or more recipients of her eggs having achieved a live birth. Moreover, such a track record makes it far more likely that such an ED will have “good quality eggs”. Furthermore, the fact that an ED readily conceived on her own lessens the likelihood that she herself has tubal or organic infertility. This having been said, the current shortage in the supply of egg donors makes it both impractical and unfeasible, to confine donor recruitment to those women who could fulfill such stringent criteria for qualification.
It is not unheard of for a donor who, at some point after donating eggs, finds herself unable to conceive on her own due to pelvic adhesions or tubal disease, to blame her infertility on complications caused by the prior surgical egg retrieval process. She may even embark upon legal proceedings against the IVF physician and program. It should therefore come as no surprise that it provides a measurable degree of comfort to ED program when a prospective donor is able to provide evidence of having experienced a relatively recent, trouble free spontaneous pregnancy.
Screening of Donors
Genetic Screening: The vast majority of IVF programs in the U.S. follow the recommendations and guidelines of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) for selectively genetic screening of prospective egg donors for conditions such as sickle cell trait or disease, thalassemia, cystic fibrosis and Tay Sachs disease, when medically indicated. Consultation with a geneticist is available through about 90% of programs.
Most recipient couples place a great deal of importance on emotional, physical, ethnic, cultural and religious compatibility with their chosen egg donor. In fact they often will insist that the egg donor be heterosexual.
Psychological Screening: Americans tend to place great emphasis on psychological screening of egg donors. Since most donors are “anonymous,” it is incumbent upon the ED agency or the IVF program to determine the donor’s degree of commitment as well as her motivation for deciding to provide this service. I have on occasions encountered donors who have buckled under the stress and defaulted mid-stream during their cycle of stimulation with gonadotropins. In one case, a donor knowingly stopped administering gonadotropins without informing anyone. She simply awaited cancellation, which was effected when follicles stopped growing and her plasma E2 concentration failed to rise.
Such concerns mandate that assessment of donor motivation and commitment be given appropriate priority. Most recipients in the U.S. tend to be very much influenced by the “character” of the prospective egg donor, believing that a flawed character is likely to be carried over genetically to the offspring. In reality, unlike certain psychoses such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorders, character flaws are usually neuroses and are most likely to be determined by environmental factors associated with upbringing. They are unlikely to be genetically transmitted. Nevertheless, egg donors should be subjected to counseling and screening and should be selectively tested by a qualified psychologists. When in doubt, they should be referred to a psychiatrist for more definitive testing. Selective use of tests such as the MMPI, Meyers-Briggs and NEO-Personality Indicator are used to assess for personality disorders. Significant abnormalities, once detected, should lead to the automatic disqualification of such prospective donors.
When it comes to choosing a known egg donor, it is equally important to make sure that she was not coerced into participating. We try to caution recipients who are considering having a close friend or family member serve as their designated egg donor, that in doing so, the potential always exists that the donor might become a permanent and an unwanted participant in the lives of their new family.
Drug Screening: Because of the prevalence of substance abuse in our society, we selectively call for urine and/or serum drug testing of our egg donors.
Screening for STDs: FDA and ASRM guidelines recommend that all egg donors be tested for sexually transmittable diseases before entering into a cycle of IVF. While it is highly improbable that DNA and RNA viruses could be transmitted to an egg or an embryo through sexual intercourse or IVF, women infected with viruses such as hepatitis B, C, HTLV, HIV etc, must be disqualified from participating in IVF with egg donation due to the (abeit remote) possibility of transmission, as well as the potential legal consequences of the egg donation process being blamed for their occurrence.
In addition, evidence of prior or existing infection with Chlamydia or Gonococcus introduces the possibility that the egg donor might have pelvic adhesions or even irreparably damaged fallopian tubes that might have rendered her infertile. As previously stated, such infertility, subsequently detected might be blamed on infection that occurred during the process of egg retrieval, exposing the caregivers to litigation. Even if an egg donor or a recipient who carries a sexually transmittable viral or bacterial agent is willing to waive all rights of legal recourse, a potential risk still exists that a subsequently affected offspring might in later in life sue for wrongful birth.
Screening of the Recipient

Medical Evaluation: while advancing age, beyond 40 years, is indeed associated with an escalating incidence of pregnancy complications, such risks are largely predicable through careful medical assessment prior to pregnancy. The fundamental question namely: “is the woman capable of safely engaging a pregnancy that would culminate in the safe birth of a healthy baby” must be answered in the affirmative, before any infertility treatment is initiated. For this reason, a thorough cardiovascular, hepatorenal, metabolic and anatomical reproductive evaluation must be done prior to initiating IVF in all cases.
Infectious Screening: the need for careful infectious screening for embryo recipients cannot be overemphasized. Aside from tests for debilitating sexually transmittable diseases, there is the important requirement that cervical mucous and semen be free of infection with ureaplasma urealyticum. This organism which rarely causes symptoms frequents the cervical glands of 15-20% of women in the U.S. The introduction of an embryo transfer catheter via a so infected cervix might transmit the organism into an otherwise sterile uterine cavity leading to early implantation failure and/or first trimester miscarriage.
Immunologic Screening: Certain autoimmune and alloimmune disorders (see elsewhere) can be associated with immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID). In order to prevent otherwise avoidable treatment failure, it is advisable to evaluate the recipient for autoimmune IDD and also to test both the recipient and the sperm provider for alloimmune similarities that could compromise implantation.
Disclosure and Consent
Preparation for egg donation requires full disclosure to all participants regarding what each step of the process involves from start to finish, as well as potential medical and psychological risks. This necessitates that significant time be devoted to this task and that there be a willingness to painstakingly address all questions and concerns posed by all parties involved in the process. An important component of full disclosure involves clear interpretation of the medical and psychological components assessed during the evaluation process. All parties should be advised to seek independent legal counsel so as to avoid conflicts of interest that might arise from legal advice given by the same attorney. Appropriate consent forms are then reviewed and signed independently by the donor and the recipient couple.
Most embryo recipients fully expect their chosen donor to yield a large number of mature, good quality eggs, sufficient to provide enough embryos to afford a good chance of pregnancy as well as several for cryopreservation (freezing) and storage. While such expectations ore often met, this is not always the case. Accordingly, to minimize the trauma of unexpected and usually unavoidable disappointment, it is essential that in the process of counseling and of consummating agreements, the respective parties be fully informed that by making best efforts to provide the highest standards of care, the caregivers can only assure optimal intent and performance in keeping with accepted standards of care. No one can ever promise an optimal outcome. All parties should be made aware that no definitive representation can or will be made as to the number or quality of ova and embryos that will or are likely to become available, the number of supernumerary embryos that will be available for cryopreservation or the subsequent outcome of the IVF donor process.
TYPES OF EGG DONATION

Conventional Egg Donation: This is the basic format used for conducting the process of egg donor IVF. It involves synchronizing the menstrual cycles of both the recipient and the donor by placing the donor and the recipient on a birth control pill so that both parties start stimulation with fertility drugs simultaneously. This ultimately allows for precise timing of the fresh embryo transfer. Using this approach, the anticipated egg donation birth rate is >50% per cycle.
Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS)-Egg Donation: The recent introduction of complete numerical chromosomal assessment (karyotyping) using metaphase Comparative Genomic Hybridization (mCGH) and Next Generation Gene sequencing (NGS) has the potential to change the manner in which egg donation will be performed in the future. CGH/NGS allows full egg/embryo chromosome analysis providing a 70- 80% assurance that the embryo(s) so selected for transfer are highly likely to be “competent” (i.e. capable of producing a healthy baby). Such PGS-egg selection provides about a 50% chance of a baby per transfer of an embryo derived through fertilization of a pre-vitrified euploid egg. This is at least double that reported when conventional egg donation is used. As a result, mCGH/NGS-Egg Donation allows for excellent results when one or two embryos are transferred, virtually eliminating the risk of “high order” multiple pregnancies (triplets or greater). Moreover, since numerical chromosomal irregularities (aneuploidy) are responsible for most miscarriages, the use of CGH also significantly reduces this dreaded complication.
PGS egg selection of necessity mandates the use of Staggered (ST)- IVF. Here the egg donor cycle is divided into two parts. The first involves the egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo biopsy for PGS analysis and embryo cryostorage. The second part involving warming or thawing of the frozen embryo(s) and the subsequent transfer of “competent” embryo(s) to the recipient’s uterus is conducted electively at least several weeks later once the results of PGS testing are available. Since, with St-IVF the egg retrieval and embryo transfer are separated in time, the retrieval can be performed without first having to synchronize the menstrual cycles of the recipient and the egg the donor. In fact, the recipient does not even have to be available when the egg donor is going through cycle. All that is needed is for designated sperm to be available (fresh or frozen) on the day of egg retrieval. This avoids unnecessary travel and inconvenience, and minimizes stress and cost.
Donor Egg Banking: Another imminent advance is the introduction of egg banking. Being able to freeze and bank donor eggs would solve most of these challenges. By using PGS in combination with a egg vitrification (ultra-rapid freezing), we are now capable of improving the birth rate per warmed/thawed egg by a factor of 3-4 fold (from a previous average of <8% per egg to about 27%). Through an electronic catalogue, recipients will be able to select and purchase 1-3 CGH-normal eggs from the comfort of their homes. Thereupon, the selective transfer of 1 or 2 embryos derived from such chromosomally normal eggs could achieve a 50-60% pregnancy rate without the risk of initiating high-order multiple pregnancies in the process. Through this process, the cost, inconvenience and risks associated with “conventional” fresh egg donor cycles would also be reduced significantly.
Financial Considerations
The fee paid to the egg donor agency per cycle usually ranges between $2,000 and $8,000. This does not include the cost associated with psychological and clinical pre-testing, fertility drugs, and donor insurance, which commonly range between $3,000 and $6,000. The medical service costs of the IVF treatment cycle ranges between $8,000 and $14,000. The donor stipend can range from $2,000 too as high $50,000 depending upon the exotic requirements of the recipient couple as well as supply and demand. Thus the total out of pocket expenses for an egg donor cycle in the United States range between $15,000 and $78,000, putting egg donation outside the financial capability of most couples needing this service.
The growing gap between need and affordability has spawned a number of creative ways to try and make IVF with egg donation more affordable. Here are a few examples:
• Egg banking (see above)
• Egg Donor Sharing, where one comprehensive fee is shared between two recipients and the eggs are then divided between them. The downside is that fewer eggs are available embryos for transfer and/or cryopreservation.
• Egg Bartering, where in the course of conventional IVF, a woman undergoing IVF remits some of her eggs to the clinic (who in turn provides it to a recipient patient) in exchange for a deferment of some or all of the IVF fee. In my opinion, such an arrangement can be fraught with problems. For example, in the event that the woman donating some of her eggs fails to conceive while the recipient of her eggs does, it is very possible that she might suffer emotional despair and even go so far as to seek out her genetic offspring. Such action could be very damaging to both her and the recipient, as well as the child.
• Financial Risk Sharing. Certain IVF programs offer financial risk sharing (FRS) which most recipient couples favor greatly. FRS offers qualifying candidates a refund of fees paid if egg donation is unsuccessful. FRS is designed to spread the risk between the providers, and the recipient couple.
Moral, Legal & Ethical Considerations: The “Uniform Parentage Act” which has been adopted by most states in the United States declares that the woman who gives birth to the child will be regarded as the rightful mother. Accordingly, there has to date not been any grounds for legal dispute when it comes to maternal custody of a child born through IVF with egg donation in the majority of states. In a few states such as Mississippi and Arizona the law is less clear but nevertheless, as yet, has not been contested.
The moral-ethical and religious implications of egg donation are diverse and have a profound effect on cultural acceptance of this process. The widely held view that everyone is entitled to their own opinion and has the right to have such opinions respected, governs much of the attitude towards this process in the U.S. The extreme views on each end of the spectrum hold the gentle central swing of the pendulum in place. This attitude is a reflection of the general acceptance in the united states of diverse views and opinions and the willingness to allow free expression of such views and beliefs provided that they don’t infringe on the rights of others.
So where do we go from here? Can and should we, cryopreserve and store eggs or ovarian tissue from a young woman wishing to defer procreation until it becomes convenient? And if we do this, would it be acceptable to eventually have a woman give birth to her own sister or aunt? Can or should we store viable ovarian tissue through generations. Should egg donation simply become a future source of embryos generated for the purpose of providing stem cells, to be used in the treatment of disease states or to “manufacture” fetuses as a source of spare body parts? If the answer to even some of these questions is yes…what about the checks and balances. Who will exercise control and where what form should such control take? Are we willing to engage this slippery slope where the disregard for the dignity of the human embryo leads us to the point where the rights of a human being are more readily ignored? …………………… Personally, I hope not.
If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my patient concierge, ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also set this up by emailing concierge@sherivf.com or by calling 702-533-2691 and/or 800-780-743. You can also enroll for a consultation with me, online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com .

Geoffrey Sher MD

Addendum #1:
Optimizing International Access to Sher-IVF Services in Las Vegas.

Geoffrey Sher MD

Couples from all over the world seek access to IVF services at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas, NV. In fact about 70% of our patients emanate from out-of-state or from abroad. Most tend to be older, have failed IVF numerous times, have had repeated pregnancy losses or have complex reproductive issues. This article explains how we treat such patients at Sher-IVF and how we are able to provide seamless care in a caring and non-stressful environment. In one case, after experiencing 22 consecutive IVF failures, a couple who journeyed to see me from Melbourne, Australia, had a baby following a single IVF attempt. My approach is to individualize care and target those factors that adversely affect IVF outcome.
At Sher-IVF, IVF cycles are batched into about 8-10, 1-2 week cycles per year (dependent on whether we do fresh embryo transfers or frozen embryo transfers (FET)…which means that patients will almost always know well in advance of treatment, when they need to be at our centers for IVF. This makes the process very convenient for both patients and staff. It also allows us to quality assure the embryology laboratory between cycle batches and so optimize care and outcome.
HOW SHER-IVF PROVIDES OPTIMAL TREATMENT AT A DISTANCE:
• Setting Up a Skype Consultation
The initial step in treatment is to schedule a consultation with me. Patients living outside of the geographic catchment area of our Sher-IVF, (Las Vegas, NV) clinic generally schedule a consultation via Skype. I find that this is much more personal than a telephone consultation and is the closest thing to meeting me in person. You can schedule this consultation by going to my website, http://www.SherIVF.com where you can enroll online, by calling the Sher-IVF at 1-800-780-7437, or by emailing Julie Dahan (patient Concierge) at JulieD@sherIVF.com. Prior to your consultation with me you will be sent a questionnaire that asks for information relating to your medical and reproductive history. You will also be asked to provide copies of whatever medical records (from prior treatment and procedures) you might have available. If you have difficulty in completing the Questionnaire, please contact Julie by phone or email her and she will help you do this.
• The Initial Physician Consultation
You will thereupon be scheduled for initial Skype or an in-person consultation with me at which time I will review all available medical records, ask additional relevant questions and offer a preliminary opinion. I will at that time provide you with my personal cell phone # and will request that you contact me immediately with any future questions or concerns, so that I can address these immediately and in so doing, avoid any misunderstandings. This will be followed by one or more free, follow-up consultations with me to endorse or revise that opinion contingent upon supportive clinical and laboratory testing that I might recommend be performed in the interim. Within 24 hours of our initial consultation, you will receive a follow-up email from me which summarizes your case, my opinion and recommends tests needed. The email communication will also provide you with a list of suggested, supportive articles that I have written on my blog, http://www.SherIVF.com, along with directions on how to access these.
• The Consultation w/Clinical Director and Financial Advisor
Within one or two working days of our initial meeting, you be contacted by my office to set up a consultation with our Office Administrator to cover the logistical and financial considerations associated with doing IVF with me at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas. This consultation is free and in no way binds you to us. It is simply intended to provide you with relevant information, in case you should choose to do IVF here in Las Vegas, with me. At the same time, you will be familiarized with the logistics, time constraints, structure and process involved in an IVF cycle at Sher-IVF. Our approach enables patients to plan their treatment with precision, even months in advance. We will also go over our protocols for performing IVF in 1-2 week batches or “cycles” throughout the year so that our patients rarely need to spend more than two (2) weeks away from home to complete a full cycle of treatment. A Clinical Coordinator will be assigned to chaperone you through your IVF cycle and she will interact with you and your primary care OB/GYN (as required) on a regular and ongoing basis.
• Reaching the Crossroad: The Decision on Whether to Proceed
After completion of the above consultations, you will be asked to contact us with a firm decision as to whether/when you wish to undergo IVF treatment at Sher-IVF. Only after making such a commitment will you be expected to make a modest financial commitment to secure your place on our IVF calendar at a designated and mutually agreed upon time.
• The consultation with a Nurse, Case manager:
Once you have committed to, and have committed to a specific IVF cycle, you (and your partner…as applicable) will be scheduled to have a detailed consultation with a Nurse Coordinator who will develop a detailed, color-coded electronic calendar outlining all aspects of your management and treatment. This will include all diagnostic steps and therapeutic procedures required to ensure that that your planned cycle of IVF can be conducted as scheduled, and without a hitch. The Clinical Coordinator and her team of nursing and administrative personnel will in effect, hand-hold and triage you through all required steps and thereupon will schedule you with follow-up consultations. You will also be provided with contact information by which to reach the Clinical Coordinator, at will.
• Follow-up Physician consultation:
Once all records are available, test results are in, and your IVF cycle is scheduled, you will again consult with me for a free, follow-up consultation at which time we will review everything in detail and if needed make adjustments. Thereupon I might require further free consultations with you and you would of course be free to visit with, or call me on my cell phone with any issues. I ask is that you do not email or text me. I prefer to be contacted by phone so that we can discuss matters of concern rather than have me respond with one-liners via electronic communication.

• Ongoing Interaction and Follow-up
Our staff will at all times endeavor be affable and available to you upon request and will endeavor to maintain regular contact with you throughout. However, we are all human, and thus are capable of erring at times ….So, if anything is not in keeping with your expectations, I ask that you bring the matter(s) to our/my attention immediately so that we can address any/all issues in a timely manner.
• How to Reach Us and Where to Stay
We will gladly advise and assist you in obtaining the most affordable transportation and accommodations. Couples who elect to undergo IVF will find that accommodations in, and airfare (especially if scheduled well in advance) to Las Vegas, likely be relatively reasonable. In fact, we can assist you in obtaining very affordable quality accommodations in close proximity to our facilities.
• Getting You Ready to Go…Conveniently and On Time
We work with you to get all of your required tests done through your own doctor’s office. Remember, your primary OB/GYN is just as capable as we to facilitate or perform virtually all the necessary tests and procedures you may need, in your hometown environment.
Once we have reviewed all your test results, a customized protocol of treatment will be developed and then be emailed to you. Your assigned Clinical Coordinator will provide you with a detailed calendar and will review it with you in person or by telephone, prior to initiating your IVF cycle of treatment.
• The IVF Cycle:
Your cycle begins with the Birth Control Pill (BCP),starting no later than day 7 of menstruation. Depending upon your scheduled date for IVF, you will continue taking the BCP Pill for 11-30 days. This will be outlined in detail on the calendar we provide you with. It will also direct you when to begin your injections. Once you have taken an agonist (e.g. the Lupron, Superfact, Buserelin) for 3-5 days, the BCP will be stopped. You can expect to menstruate 3-8 days after stopping the BCP. Your blood estradiol (E2) level will be measured at the onset of menstruation. An E2 level of less than 70 pg/ml (200pmol/L) provides relative assurance that you have not formed an ovarian cyst and that you are ready to begin Gonadotropin (fertility hormone medication) injections. You will also have an ultrasound examination to ensure that you have no obvious cysts.
Depending on the stimulation protocol selected, you will at this point either continue with daily agonist injections (The conventional down-regulation protocol) or switch to an antagonist (Ganirelix, Cetrotide, Orgalutron) daily injections (the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol-A/ACP). Once again, your calendar will direct you as to when you should start the injections at home and plan on arriving at the center in Las Vegas for monitoring 7-8 days later. Please note that you will also be taking other medications during your cycle of treatment. This may include daily human growth hormone (HGH) until the day of hCG “trigger” and/or , low dosage oral steroid therapy (dexamethasone/prednisone) starting early in the stimulation and continuing to the 10th week of pregnancy,
If you have a thin uterine lining, you might receive vaginal sildenafil (Viagra) suppositories from the early stage of ovarian stimulation to the day of the hCG “trigger” . In the case of embryo recipient cycles (e.g. egg donation, gestational surrogacy, low dosage oral steroid therapy (dexamethasone/prednisone) will start early in the stimulation and continue to the 10th week of pregnancy. Treatment of an underlying immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID) may in addition require that you receive an intravenous infusion of 20% Intralipid (IL) about 10-14 days prior to embryo transfer (ET) and/or low molecular heparinoid (Lovenox or Clexane). This might need to be repeated one or more times after a positive beta-hCG pregnancy test depending on the type of immune issue involved in your case.
Once you arrive at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas for treatment, regular (usually daily) monitoring of blood E2 levels will begin along with ultrasound monitoring of your ovarian response and development of your uterine lining. Typically, egg retrieval will take place 2-8 days after your arrival at the clinic for monitoring. Fresh ET usually involves blasto

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Margo

Hello Dr Sher
Thank you for sharing your amazing experience and your time.
I’m 41 yo woman, generally healthy, healthy weight, healthy diet, moderately active.No kids. Never used any contraception. Got pregnant for the first time naturally at the age of 39 and had chemical abortion at 6 weeks (due to personal reasons -severe physical abuse from the partner). A year later – taking Vitex for 3 weeks resulted in hot flashes and absent period and FSH of 85. By the recommendation of ObGyn took contraception pills for one cycle. since then – for the last year – did more balanced diet, long walks, tried to manage stress. As a result my periods are 80-90 days apart, sporadic hot flashes. I have no partner now, and I can’t have IVF but I want to try to retrieve eggs if it’s even possible in my condition and age. What blood tests should I do before scheduling appointment with you to see what my chances are?
Thank you in advance!

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Kelli Brown

Hello Dr. Sher,

I am concerned about my upcoming IVF protocol, it will be third after two not so successful stim cycles. As background:

1st cycle (baseline AMH 1.47) 300 Gonal F daily, 150 menopur daily, 1 ganirelix daily for 3 days prior to ER, 10,000 IU Pregnyl trigger shot. 8 eggs retrieved, 4 mature, 4 fertilized, 2 pgd tested w/ one normal. Also, I developed OHSS and was on bed rest for a week.

2nd cycle (not sure the AMH) 450 Gonal F daily, 20cc low dose hcg, added Ganirelix daily on days 5-9 of treatment, Lupron trigger 9pm & again 9am next day. 17 eggs retrieved, 15 mature, 9 fertilized, 3 pgd tested w/ 2 abnormal & 1 mosaic. Estradiol levels were 5,500 prior to ER and in the 7,000s at retrieval.

I decided to get further diagnostic bloodwork to see if there are any underlying causes. My TSH came back slightly elevated at 4.0 and now on synthroid. Endocrinologist determines the IVF meds caused this after she ran even further bloodwork where all my other results were no concern.

My RE wants to do a microdose Lupron cycle with 300 Gonal F, 150 menopur , 50 mcg microdose Lupron, HCG trigger shot. This is what you considered a aggressive protocol in one of your blogs. My RE claims I am a low responder based off my first cycle even though my second had a much higher egg count. Obviously we have spent a lot of time, energy and finances on this and we want to make sure we aren’t wasting it trying to find the best cocktail. I presumed, I would need a lower dose to begin my cycle.

I am 37 years old and only doing IVF due to an ectopic pregnancy 10 years ago that left me with one tube.

Any insight?

Appreciate your time and consideration,
Kelli B

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

First, Based upon your response,I do not believe that you have a significant degree of DOR. Below please find the protocol approach I would recommend for you. Second, I would suggest you gat tested for thyroid autoimmune disease because that can adversely impact implantation (see below…ADDENDUM).

Here is the protocol I advise for women, <40Y who have “adequate” ovarian reserve.
My advice is to use a long pituitary down regulation protocol starting on a BCP, and overlapping it with Lupron 10U daily for three (3) days and then stopping the BCP but continuing on Lupron 10u daily (in my opinion 20U daily is too much) and await a period (which should ensue within 5-7 days of stopping the BCP). At that point an US examination is done along with a baseline measurement of blood estradiol to exclude a functional ovarian cyst and simultaneously, the Lupron dosage is reduced to 5U daily to be continued until the hCG (10,000u) trigger. An FSH-dominant gonadotropin such as Follistim, Puregon or Gonal-f daily is started with the period for 2 days and then the gonadotropin dosage is reduced and a small amount of menotropin (Menopur---no more than 75U daily) is added. This is continued until US and blood estradiol levels indicate that the hCG trigger be given, whereupon an ER is done 36h later. I personally would advise against using Lupron in “flare protocol” arrangement (where the Lupron commences with the onset of gonadotropin administration.
I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.
• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas
• Should IVF Treatment Cycles be provided uninterrupted or be Conducted in 7-12 Pre-scheduled “Batches” per Year
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• “Triggering” Egg Maturation in IVF: Comparing urine-derived hCG, Recombinant DNA-hCG and GnRH-agonist:
If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my patient concierge, ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also set this up by emailing concierge@sherivf.com or by calling 702-533-2691 and/or 800-780-743. You can also enroll for a consultation with me, online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com .

Geoffrey Sher MD
__________________________________________________________________
ADDENDUM:

Between 2% and 5% of women of the childbearing age have reduced thyroid hormone activity (hypothyroidism). Women with hypothyroidism often manifest with reproductive failure i.e. infertility, unexplained (often repeated) IVF failure, or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The condition is 5-10 times more common in women than in men. In most cases hypothyroidism is caused by damage to the thyroid gland resulting from of thyroid autoimmunity (Hashimoto’s disease) caused by damage done to the thyroid gland by antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal auto-antibodies.
The increased prevalence of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) in women is likely the result of a combination of genetic factors, estrogen-related effects and chromosome X abnormalities. This having been said, there is significantly increased incidence of thyroid antibodies in non-pregnant women with a history of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss and thyroid antibodies can be present asymptomatically in women without them manifesting with overt clinical or endocrinologic evidence of thyroid disease. In addition, these antibodies may persist in women who have suffered from hyper- or hypothyroidism even after normalization of their thyroid function by appropriate pharmacological treatment. The manifestations of reproductive dysfunction thus seem to be linked more to the presence of thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) than to clinical existence of hypothyroidism and treatment of the latter does not routinely result in a subsequent improvement in reproductive performance.
It follows, that if antithyroid autoantibodies are associated with reproductive dysfunction they may serve as useful markers for predicting poor outcome in patients undergoing assisted reproductive technologies.
Some years back, I reported on the fact that 47% of women who harbor thyroid autoantibodies, regardless of the absence or presence of clinical hypothyroidism, have activated uterine natural killer cells (NKa) cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) and that such women often present with reproductive dysfunction. We demonstrated that appropriate immunotherapy with IVIG or intralipid (IL) and steroids, subsequently often results in a significant improvement in reproductive performance in such cases.
The fact that almost 50% of women who harbor antithyroid antibodies do not have activated CTL/NK cells suggests that it is NOT the antithyroid antibodies themselves that cause reproductive dysfunction. The activation of CTL and NK cells that occurs in half of the cases with TAI is probably an epiphenomenon with the associated reproductive dysfunction being due to CTL/NK cell activation that damages the early “root system” (trophoblast) of the implanting embryo. We have shown that treatment of those women who have thyroid antibodies NKa/CTL using IL/steroids, improves subsequent reproductive performance while women with thyroid antibodies who do not harbor NKa/CTL do not require or benefit from such treatment.

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Karen

Hello Dr. Sher,

Can you please tell me some dos and don’ts for the two week wait after FET? I want to make sure I increase my chances of implantation. Each clinic says something different regarding rest or stress and the internet suggests different foods to eat. Or do you have an article about this topic somewhere on your site?

Thank you very much,

Karen

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

There are no absolute do’s and dont’s. No need for bed rest . Try not to over-exercise, keep stress levels as low as possible, Avoid non-scrutinized medications and keep caffeine intake down. Don’t lift heavy objects >20lb and avoid sexual penetrations.

Good luck!

Geoff Sher

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Net

Hello Dr. Sher, I hope you can shed some light on our journey and help us choose our next step, we are writing to you from across the globe.
In the past year, I’ve been through 5 cycles of IVF (all short protocol) and our challenge is that 100% of the eggs retrieved (between 13-21 each time) are ALL M1 and do not mature in the lab. We tried different stimulation strategies, some with Menopur and orgalutran and some combining Gonal F/laverus and orgalutran, stimulating for at least 10 days and in some even a bit more to allow the follicles to reach 20mm at least. on paper, everything looks normal. I have mild PCOS, with normal periods and hormone levels, but at most times my E2 was very high (18000-22000). we tried using both triggers (ovidrel/ lupron) and a “double trigger” the last time, combining the two to try and improve egg maturation. You can imagine how hard it is to get the same result even when trying to change the protocol a bit. Reading your posts here I can see that you recommend and use the long protocol, would that be something you’d recommend in this case? can this simply be a genetic problem with the eggs and no matter what we do they just can’t mature to M2? (my karyotype test in normal). Important to note that in the last cycle they ICSI M1 eggs that resulted in 3 fertilized eggs (polar body excretion occurred) but in a very low quality, we are still waiting to see if they get to day 5.
I would love to hear your thoughts and if you ever had a similar case.
Thank you.

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Sorryb Olivia,

I have lost the thread. You would need to restate the issue for me to be able to respond!

Geoff Sher

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Olivia

Hi doctor,
Is a fetal HR of 104 measuring CRL of 2.5 mm at 5 wk 6 days and sac measuring at 16.8 mm sound viable and promising to you?

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal system disorder among women affecting between 5% and 10% of women of reproductive age worldwide. Women with PCOS may have enlarged ovaries that contain multiple small collections of fluid (subcapsular microcysts) that are arranged like a “string of pearls” immediately below the ovarian surface (capsule).interspersed by an overgrowth of ovarian connective tissue (stroma). The condition is characterized by abnormal ovarian function (irregular or absent periods, abnormal or absent ovulation and infertility, androgenicity (increased body hair or hirsutism, acne) and increased body weight –body mass index or BMI.
Women with PCOS are at increased risk that ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins will result in the, of development of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a life-endangering condition that is often accompanied by a profound reduction in egg “competency” and on fertilization often yield an inordinately high percentage of “incompetent” embryos which have a reduced potential to propagate viable pregnancies.
Concern and even fear that their PCOS patients will develop of OHSS often leads the treating RE to take measures aimed at reducing the risk of this life-endangering condition. One such measures is to “trigger” egg maturation prematurely in the hope of arresting further follicular growth and the other, is to initiate the “trigger” with a reduced dosage of hCG (i.ed. 5,000U rather than the usual 10,000U of of Pregnyl/Profasi/Novarel, to use or 250mcg rather than 500mcg of Ovidrel or to supplant the hCG “trigger” with a Lupron “trigger” which causes a prompt LH surge from the woman’s pituitary gland to take place. While such measures do indeed reduce the risk of OHSS to the mother, this often comes at the expense of egg quantity and “competency”. Fewer than the anticipated number of eggs are harvested and those that are retrieved are far more likely to be “immature” and chromosomally abnormal (aneuploid”), or “immature” , thereby significantly compromising IVF outcome.
Against this background, It is my considered opinion that when it comes to performing IVF in women with PCOS, the most important consideration must be the selection and proper implementation of an individualized or customized ovarian stimulation protocol. Thereupon, rather than prematurely initiating the “trigger” to arrest further follicle growth, administering a reduced dosage of hCG or “triggering with a GnRH agonist (e.g. Lupron/Buserelin) that can compromise egg “competency”….. use of one of the following techniques will often markedly reduce the risk of OHSS while at the same time protecting egg quality:
1. PROLONGED COASTING…my preferred approach: My preferred approach is to use a long pituitary down-regulation protocol coming off the BCP which during the last 3 days is overlapped with the agonist, Lupron/Buserelin/Superfact. The BCP is intended to lower LH and thereby reduce stromal activation (hyperthecosis) in the hope of controlling LH-induced ovarian androgen (predominantly, testosterone) production and release. I then stimulate my PCOS patients using a low dosage of recombinant FSH-(FSHr) such as Follistim/Gonal-F/Puregon. On the 3rd day of such stimulation a smidgeon of LH/hCG (Luveris/Menopur) is added. Thereupon, starting on day 7 of ovarian stimulation, I perform serial blood estradiol (E2) and ultrasound follicle assessments, watching for the number and size of the follicles and the blood estradiol concentration [E2]. I keep stimulating (regardless of the [E2] until 50% of all follicles reach 14mm. At this point, provided the [E2] reaches at least >2,500pg/ml, I stop the agonist as well as gonadotropin stimulation and track the blood E2 concentration daily. The [E2] will almost invariably increase for a few days. I closely monitor the [E2] as it rises, plateaus and then begins to decline. As soon as the [E2] drops below 2500pg/ml (and not before then), I administer a “trigger” shot of 10,000U Profasi/ Novarel/Pregnyl or 500mcg Ovidrel/Ovitrel. This is followed by an egg retrieval, performed 36 hours later. Fertilization is accomplished using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because “coasted” eggs usually have little or no cumulus oophoris enveloping them and eggs without a cumulus will not readily fertilize naturally. Moreover, they also tend to have a “hardened” envelopment (zona pellucida), making spontaneous fertilization problematic in many cases. All fertilized eggs are cultured to the blastocyst stage (up to day 5- 6 days) and thereupon are either vitrified and preserved for subsequent transfer in later hormone replacement cycles or (up to 2) blastocysts are transferred to the uterus, transvaginally under transabdominal ultrasound guidance. The success of this approach depends on precise timing of the initiation and conclusion of “prolonged coasting”. If started too early, follicle growth will arrest and the cycle will be lost. If commenced too late, too many follicles will be post-mature/cystic (>22mm) and as such will usually harbor abnormal or dysmature eggs. Use of “Coasting” almost always prevents the development of severe OHSS, optimizes egg/embryo quality and avoids unnecessary cycle cancellation. If correctly implemented, the worst you will encounter is moderate OHSS and this too is relatively uncommon.
2. EMBRYO FREEZING AND DEFERMENT OF EMBRYO TRANSFEDR (ET): OHSS is always a self-limiting condition. In the absence of continued exposure to hCG, symptoms and signs as well as the risk of severe complications will ultimately abate. Thus, in the absence of pregnancy, all symptoms, signs and risks associated with OHSS will disappear within about 10-14 days of the hCG trigger. Conversely, since early pregnancy is always accompanied by a rapid and progressive rise in hCG , the severity of OHSS will increase until about the 9th or tenth gestational week whereupon a transition from ovarian to placental hormonal dominance occurs, the severity of OHSS rapidly diminishes and the patient will be out of risk. Accordingly, in cases where in spite of best effort to prevent OHSS, the woman develops symptoms and signs of progressive overstimulation prior to planned ET, all the blastocysts should be vitrified and cryostored for FET in a subsequent hormone replacement cycle. In this way women with OHSS can be spared the risk of the condition spiraling out of control.
I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com . Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.
· The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
· Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
· IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
· The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
· Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
· Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
· Egg Maturation in IVF: How Egg “Immaturity”, “Post-maturity” and “Dysmaturity” Influence IVF Outcome:
· Commonly Asked Question in IVF: “Why Did so Few of my Eggs Fertilize and, so Many Fail to Reach Blastocyst?”
· Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
· The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
· Taking A Fresh Look at Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS), its Presentation, Prevention and Management
· Preventing Severe Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) with “Prolonged Coasting”
· Understanding Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and the Need to Customize Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
· “Triggering” Egg Maturation in IVF: Comparing urine-derived hCG, Recombinant DNA-hCG and GnRH-agonist:
· The “Lupron Trigger” to Prevent Severe OHSS: What are the Pro’s and Con’s?
• .Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
• Implications of “Empty Follicle Syndrome and “Premature Luteinization”
• Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
• Preventing Severe Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) with “Prolonged Coasting”

If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my patient concierge, ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also set this up by emailing concierge@sherivf.com or by calling 702-533-2691 and/or 800-780-743. You can also enroll for a consultation with me, online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com .

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Alana

Hi Dr. Sher,

Thank you so much for having this forum. I have a question. I just did a frozen embryo transfer and I got into an argument with my husband which lasted four hours. I couldn’t help yelling and getting stressed out, and now I’m worried I may have caused the embryo to not implant. I had the transfer two days ago. Is there a chance I could have lost the chance due to the stress and yelling?

Alana

reply
Jen w

Hi Dr. Sher!
I’m at the end of an Ivf cycle with a decision to make between fresh or fet.
On ultrasound around 20 follicles measuring between 15-20mm are seen with a handful of smaller ones. And one random 24mm.
My e2 yesterday was 3850
And I was told to trigger with 5000hcg and 40units of lupron.
I have PCOS and a high amh 13.
I was on the antagonist approach and took 150 gonal
1 vial menopur
For first 4 days
Then lowered to 125 gonal
1 vial menopur eventually adding cetrotide for 5 days. Then trigger last night.
I was originally told no fresh transfer but yesterday was told it is up to me.
My progesterone is low and my lining is 10.6
Not feeling much discomfort just a little full since trigger (nothing bothersome and hardly noticeable)
Would you think it a fine environment to proceed with a fresh 5 day transfer?
We are leaning in that direction but was looking for some objective advice.
Many thanks!

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Except for the one cystic follicle (24mm), it looks reasonably favorable.While I might have chosen a different stimulation approach, this cycle could still be fine.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal system disorder among women affecting between 5% and 10% of women of reproductive age worldwide. Women with PCOS may have enlarged ovaries that contain multiple small collections of fluid (subcapsular microcysts) that are arranged like a “string of pearls” immediately below the ovarian surface (capsule).interspersed by an overgrowth of ovarian connective tissue (stroma). The condition is characterized by abnormal ovarian function (irregular or absent periods, abnormal or absent ovulation and infertility, androgenicity (increased body hair or hirsutism, acne) and increased body weight –body mass index or BMI.
Women with PCOS are at increased risk that ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins will result in the, of development of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a life-endangering condition that is often accompanied by a profound reduction in egg “competency” and on fertilization often yield an inordinately high percentage of “incompetent” embryos which have a reduced potential to propagate viable pregnancies.
Concern and even fear that their PCOS patients will develop of OHSS often leads the treating RE to take measures aimed at reducing the risk of this life-endangering condition. One such measures is to “trigger” egg maturation prematurely in the hope of arresting further follicular growth and the other, is to initiate the “trigger” with a reduced dosage of hCG (i.ed. 5,000U rather than the usual 10,000U of of Pregnyl/Profasi/Novarel, to use or 250mcg rather than 500mcg of Ovidrel or to supplant the hCG “trigger” with a Lupron “trigger” which causes a prompt LH surge from the woman’s pituitary gland to take place. While such measures do indeed reduce the risk of OHSS to the mother, this often comes at the expense of egg quantity and “competency”. Fewer than the anticipated number of eggs are harvested and those that are retrieved are far more likely to be “immature” and chromosomally abnormal (aneuploid”), or “immature” , thereby significantly compromising IVF outcome.
Against this background, It is my considered opinion that when it comes to performing IVF in women with PCOS, the most important consideration must be the selection and proper implementation of an individualized or customized ovarian stimulation protocol. Thereupon, rather than prematurely initiating the “trigger” to arrest further follicle growth, administering a reduced dosage of hCG or “triggering with a GnRH agonist (e.g. Lupron/Buserelin) that can compromise egg “competency”….. use of one of the following techniques will often markedly reduce the risk of OHSS while at the same time protecting egg quality:
1. PROLONGED COASTING…my preferred approach: My preferred approach is to use a long pituitary down-regulation protocol coming off the BCP which during the last 3 days is overlapped with the agonist, Lupron/Buserelin/Superfact. The BCP is intended to lower LH and thereby reduce stromal activation (hyperthecosis) in the hope of controlling LH-induced ovarian androgen (predominantly, testosterone) production and release. I then stimulate my PCOS patients using a low dosage of recombinant FSH-(FSHr) such as Follistim/Gonal-F/Puregon. On the 3rd day of such stimulation a smidgeon of LH/hCG (Luveris/Menopur) is added. Thereupon, starting on day 7 of ovarian stimulation, I perform serial blood estradiol (E2) and ultrasound follicle assessments, watching for the number and size of the follicles and the blood estradiol concentration [E2]. I keep stimulating (regardless of the [E2] until 50% of all follicles reach 14mm. At this point, provided the [E2] reaches at least >2,500pg/ml, I stop the agonist as well as gonadotropin stimulation and track the blood E2 concentration daily. The [E2] will almost invariably increase for a few days. I closely monitor the [E2] as it rises, plateaus and then begins to decline. As soon as the [E2] drops below 2500pg/ml (and not before then), I administer a “trigger” shot of 10,000U Profasi/ Novarel/Pregnyl or 500mcg Ovidrel/Ovitrel. This is followed by an egg retrieval, performed 36 hours later. Fertilization is accomplished using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because “coasted” eggs usually have little or no cumulus oophoris enveloping them and eggs without a cumulus will not readily fertilize naturally. Moreover, they also tend to have a “hardened” envelopment (zona pellucida), making spontaneous fertilization problematic in many cases. All fertilized eggs are cultured to the blastocyst stage (up to day 5- 6 days) and thereupon are either vitrified and preserved for subsequent transfer in later hormone replacement cycles or (up to 2) blastocysts are transferred to the uterus, transvaginally under transabdominal ultrasound guidance. The success of this approach depends on precise timing of the initiation and conclusion of “prolonged coasting”. If started too early, follicle growth will arrest and the cycle will be lost. If commenced too late, too many follicles will be post-mature/cystic (>22mm) and as such will usually harbor abnormal or dysmature eggs. Use of “Coasting” almost always prevents the development of severe OHSS, optimizes egg/embryo quality and avoids unnecessary cycle cancellation. If correctly implemented, the worst you will encounter is moderate OHSS and this too is relatively uncommon.
2. EMBRYO FREEZING AND DEFERMENT OF EMBRYO TRANSFEDR (ET): OHSS is always a self-limiting condition. In the absence of continued exposure to hCG, symptoms and signs as well as the risk of severe complications will ultimately abate. Thus, in the absence of pregnancy, all symptoms, signs and risks associated with OHSS will disappear within about 10-14 days of the hCG trigger. Conversely, since early pregnancy is always accompanied by a rapid and progressive rise in hCG , the severity of OHSS will increase until about the 9th or tenth gestational week whereupon a transition from ovarian to placental hormonal dominance occurs, the severity of OHSS rapidly diminishes and the patient will be out of risk. Accordingly, in cases where in spite of best effort to prevent OHSS, the woman develops symptoms and signs of progressive overstimulation prior to planned ET, all the blastocysts should be vitrified and cryostored for FET in a subsequent hormone replacement cycle. In this way women with OHSS can be spared the risk of the condition spiraling out of control.
I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com . Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.
· The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
· Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
· IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
· The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
· Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
· Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
· Egg Maturation in IVF: How Egg “Immaturity”, “Post-maturity” and “Dysmaturity” Influence IVF Outcome:
· Commonly Asked Question in IVF: “Why Did so Few of my Eggs Fertilize and, so Many Fail to Reach Blastocyst?”
· Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
· The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
· Taking A Fresh Look at Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS), its Presentation, Prevention and Management
· Preventing Severe Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) with “Prolonged Coasting”
· Understanding Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and the Need to Customize Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
· “Triggering” Egg Maturation in IVF: Comparing urine-derived hCG, Recombinant DNA-hCG and GnRH-agonist:
· The “Lupron Trigger” to Prevent Severe OHSS: What are the Pro’s and Con’s?
• .Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
• Implications of “Empty Follicle Syndrome and “Premature Luteinization”
• Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
• Preventing Severe Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) with “Prolonged Coasting”

If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my patient concierge, ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also set this up by emailing concierge@sherivf.com or by calling 702-533-2691 and/or 800-780-743. You can also enroll for a consultation with me, online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com .

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Kristi

Hi Dr. Sher, I’m hoping you chould offer your option on my current situation. I have recently been diagnosed with NCAH after 2 years of unexplained amenorrhea and infertility. I’m 29 years old had been taking oral contraceptives since I was 16yrs old with no issues with my menstrual cycles. I have seen many gynaecologists and most recently an endocrinologist. Each of of them have prescribed Estrace, Apo-Medroxy, Letrozole and Apo-Dexamethasone none of which have provided any results. I’m kind of at an impasse as I understand I cannot be referred to a fertility clinic in my province until my doctors can provide more results.

Is this normal? Should I be pushing harder for more results? I’m starting to feel a bit discouraged as it’s been 2 years of doctors appointments and I’m no further along. I’d appreciate any insight! Thank you.

reply
Carla

Hi dr. I am 18 5 weeks pregnant with twins. Just found out baby a has an anterior placenta. I was put in pelvic rest. Is that normal?

reply
Olivia

Hi doctor,
Is a fetal HR of 104 measuring CRL of 2.5 mm at 5 wk 6 days and sac measuring at 16.8 mm sound viable and promising to you?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

It does not sound encouraging I am afraid. I hope I am wrong. Time will determine.

Geoff Sher

reply
O. Sahin

hi dr sher finally i got FET and 8dpt i couldnt wait and had beta hcg test
it was 96, 1….
two days later, dpt10, it was 177,6…
1 day later dp11 it is 248.75
6day blast 6a embrio and it is not doubling exactly. should i be worried or can i be complettly relax. another help please
i had intralipid cd 3 by your advice and 3 day before transfer, by my doctor advice, and again after pregnancy test . now i know you say it is enough intralipid but my doctor says i should have intralipid every week until 12week pregnancy. is it harmfull for the fetus or is it ok. it has really high calorie but if it helps implantation and doesnt harm my baby i can have intralipid for weeks what do you think? when i have intralipid, that day i have my clexane shot also. is it okey?
does intralipid have potention of blood plug or something??
by the way i allways asked what to eat before transfer. now i ask for your recommendation about this early stage of pregnancy.. i am 42 years old 1 ivf 1 fet failed 1 misscarriage of 81/2week spontane pregnancy. i have blood issue i have clexane every day and folic acid and 3*1 estrofem, 3*1 progestanand 2*2 prednisolone and 200ng selenium (for hashimato) 100ng euthyrox thats all. should i have vitamin a e c zinc or should i lower my selenium dosage.. do you recommend carrot juice for amnion likid etc.. i forget all i know what to do or eat

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

So far, I am optimistic for you. However, given your age and the effect on egg/embryo chromosomal integrity, it is not possible to be confident as yet.

Additional IL is probably harmless, but it is probably unnecessary.

Geoff Sher

reply
Miranda

Sorry Dr. let me add to that. My transfer was October 1st and it was a 3 day blastocyst. I had light spotting on Thursday October 11. First beta October 12 second October 16 and third October 18.

reply
Miranda

Hello Doctor, wanted to ask what you think of my beta results. First beta 14.7 second 29.7 and third 75.6.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

One often hears the expressed opinion that the BCP suppresses response to ovarian stimulation. This is not the case, provided that the BCP is overlapped with administration of an agonist (e.g. Lupron, Buserelin, Superfact) for several days leading up to the start of menstruation and the initiation of ovarian stimulation cycle with gonadotropin drugs. If the latter precaution is not taken, and the cycle of stimulation is initiated coming directly off the BCP the response will often be blunted and subsequent egg quality could be adversely affected.
The explanation for this is that in natural (unstimulated) as well as in cycles stimulated with fertility drugs, the ability of follicles to properly respond to FSH stimulation is dependent on their having developed FSH-responsive receptors . Pre-antral follicles (PAF) do not have such primed FSH receptors and thus cannot respond properly to FSH stimulation with gonadotropins. The acquisition of FSH receptor responsivity requires that the pre-antral follicles be exposed to FSH, for a number of days (5-7) during which time they attain “FSH-responsivity” and are now known as antral follicles (AF). These AF’s are now able to respond properly to stimulation with administered FSH-gonadotropins. In regular menstrual cycles, the rising FSH output from the pituitary gland insures that PAPs convert tor AF’s. The BCP (as well as prolonged administration of estrogen/progesterone) suppresses FSH. This suppression needs to be countered by artificially causing blood FSH levels to rise in order to cause PAF to AF conversion prior to COS commencing, otherwise pre-antral-to –antral follicle conversion will not take place in an orderly fashion and the follicles will not readily respond to gonadotropins (FSH) , thereby delaying follicle development by up to 7 days and compromising egg quality. GnRH agonists (e.g. Lupron, Buserelin, Superfact) , cause an immediate surge in release of FSH by the pituitary gland thus causing conversion from PAF to SAF. This is why, women who take a BCP to launch a cycle of COS need to have an overlap of the BCP with an agonist.
By overlapping the BCP with an agonist for a few days prior to menstruation the early recruited follicles are able to complete their developmental drive to the AF stage and as such, be ready to respond appropriately to optimal ovarian stimulation. Using this approach, the timing of the initiation of the IVF treatment cycle can readily and safely be regulated and controlled by varying the length of time that the woman is on the BCP.

Geoff Sher

reply
Hope

Thank you Dr. Sher! Is this similar to the Long Lupron Protocol? Will adding an Agonist to the BCPs also be recommended for someone with DOR?

reply
Heather Collier

Hey I’m 23 years old, and me and my fiance have been trying to convince for about a year and a half now. And I’m looking for something to help boost my chances of getting pregnant. Are these supplements safe for me to use? And would they have the effects I’m looking for? And what are any side effects I might be looking at?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

There is no clear evidence that any supplement besides folic acid really helps. However here is my recommendation for patients contemplating IVF and they would not differ for regular fertility.

It is important to nurture and take care of yourself mentally and physically when preparing and going through your IVF journey. This starts with trying to have a positive attitude about what you are about to go through, creating a stress support system for yourself by using tools such as visualization, acupuncture and meditation, eating the right foods taking a few supplements (see below) and balancing exercise with sufficient rest. . Not only will it help your experience but it may also help to increase your chances for IVF success
This article will focus on the role of nutritional supplements in preparing for IVF. You’ve probably wondered whether commercially available fertility supplements could help you achieve your goal. The answer is complex.
Here is my take: Nutrition is indeed a vital prerequisite for optimal reproductive function. However, a well-balanced diet that meets food preferences, coupled with modest vitamin, mineral and antioxidant supplementation (as can be found in many prenatal vitamin preparations) should suffice.
This having been said, conceiving is a delicate process, and eating the right foods is essential to optimize reproductive potential. Indeed, a balanced diet (i.e. a lot of organic and brightly colored foods) will provide most of the nutrients you need. But the truth is that most people do not have a balanced diet and are unwittingly often deficient in important nutrients.
A balanced diet is one that is rich in good quality protein, low in sugar, salt, caffeine and industrially created trans-fats (trans-fatty acids or partially hydrogenated oils) and soy, uncontaminated by heavy metals, free of nicotine, alcohol and recreational drugs. This is why routine supplementation with the following nutrients could enhance preconception readiness:
• Folic acid (400 micrograms daily)
• Vitamins D-3 1,000U daily; Viamin A (2565 IU daily); B6 (6mg -10 mg daily); B12 (12-20 mcg per day); C- (2,000 mg a day for both men and women); E (both sexes should get 150-200U daily)
• Co-enzyme Q10 (400-600mg daily )
• Amino acids such as L-Carnitine (3 grams daily) and L-arginine (1 gram per day )
• Omega 3 fatty acids (2,000mg per day)
• Minerals, mainly zinc (15mg per day); selenium (70-100mcg per day); iron (up to 20mg per day ); magnesium (400mg per day )
There are likely to be significant reproductive health benefits (including enhanced fertility and intrauterine development) associated with the use of nutritional supplements. However there are also certain potential pitfalls associated with their use. Some supplements are not as safe as they would seem. For example, excessive intake of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) can even be dangerous to your health and may be associated with fetal malformations.
Additionally, numerous supplements have been found to contain contaminants such as toxic plant materials, heavy metals and even prescription medications that can compromise fetal development. Prior to the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, supplements (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and botanicals) were required to demonstrate safety. However, since passage of “the Act”, they are now presumed to be safe until shown otherwise, thus establishing a rather hazardous situation where a typical prenatal vitamin that will provide sufficient vitamins and minerals for a healthy early pregnancy and potentially dangerous supplements can and are being sold in the same store without product liability.
What about the use of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)? DHEA is a male hormone supplement that is metabolized to androstenedione and testosterone in the ovaries. While a small amount of ovarian testosterone is needed for optimal follicle and egg development, too much testosterone could be decidedly harmful. DHEA supplements probably won’t do harm if taken by healthy young women who have normal ovarian reserve, but they probably would not derive any benefit either. However, in my opinion, DHEA supplementation could be potentially harmful when taken by women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), women who have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and older women in their 40’s as such women often already tend to have increased LH-activity, leading to increased ovarian testosterone. Additional ovarian testosterone in such women, could thus potentially compromise follicle development and egg quality/competency.
In summary: Maximizing reproductive performance and optimizing outcome following fertility treatment requires a combined strategy involving a balanced diet (rich in protein, low in sugars, soy and trans-fats), modest nutritional supplementation, limiting/avoiding foods and contaminants that can compromise reproductive potential, and adopting disciplined lifestyle modification such as not smoking, reducing stress, minimizing alcohol intake, avoiding nicotine and recreational drug consumption, and getting down to a healthy weight through diet and exercise.

Geoff Sher

reply
Hope

The IVF clinics in my area are smaller clinics and need to batch patients using birth control pills. However, I have DOR and was very over-suppressed when on birth control. Is there an alternative to birth control in order to batch patients? I want to try estrogen priming but we need a way to schedule my period precisely, so I’m at a loss. Thanks!

reply
Sherry

Hi Dr. Sher,

On the first day of my FET my doctor told me I should be getting lots of rest for the first 24 hours and not carry heavy things for two weeks to support implantation. The problem is that I have a 20-pound baby to carry around all day. I also slept under warm covers and suddenly realized I was overheating. This happened in the first 24 hours. I read that overheating isn’t good for the embryos. Do you think that these things could have prevented implantation? I just did my tranfer yesterday and I’m very worried. Please let me know.

Thank you,

Sherry

reply
Q.

I was told that taking estrogen pills “pauses” your cycle. For example, if I start taking estrogen pills on cycle day 3 (i.e. 3 days after period started), my body will stay at cycle day 3 for any number of days I continue taking the pills. Once I stop the pills, my body gets back to normal. So, according to the calendar I’m now at cycle day 10, but because of the estrogen pills my body thinks it’s still at cycle day 3. I’m using this as preparation for IVF but I’m having a difficult time understanding this concept. Can you help me out? Thanks!

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Thank you doctor! I do not believe the prior use of Finasteride is a factor. Your age and normal ovarian response/reserve are both in your favor. i do NOT agree with the dosage of Ovidrel at 250mcg. That is like receiving 5,000-6000U hCHu and that is about half of what is required. You need 10,000U hCG or 500mcg Ovidrel for the trigger in my opinion. And while a late antagonist suppression protocol is OKL, i think it can be improved upon.

Here is the protocol I advise for women, <40Y who have adequate ovarian reserve.
My advice is to use a long pituitary down regulation protocol starting on a BCP, and overlapping it with Lupron 10U daily for three (3) days and then stopping the BCP but continuing on Lupron 10u daily (in my opinion 20U daily is too much) and await a period (which should ensue within 5-7 days of stopping the BCP). At that point an US examination is done along with a baseline measurement of blood estradiol to exclude a functional ovarian cyst and simultaneously, the Lupron dosage is reduced to 5U daily to be continued until the hCG (10,000u) trigger. An FSH-dominant gonadotropin such as Follistim, Puregon or Gonal-f daily is started with the period for 2 days and then the gonadotropin dosage is reduced and a small amount of menotropin (Menopur---no more than 75U daily) is added. This is continued until US and blood estradiol levels indicate that the hCG trigger be given, whereupon an ER is done 36h later. I personally would advise against using Lupron in “flare protocol” arrangement (where the Lupron commences with the onset of gonadotropin administration.
I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.
• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas
• Should IVF Treatment Cycles be provided uninterrupted or be Conducted in 7-12 Pre-scheduled “Batches” per Year
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• “Triggering” Egg Maturation in IVF: Comparing urine-derived hCG, Recombinant DNA-hCG and GnRH-agonist:
If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my patient concierge, ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also set this up by emailing concierge@sherivf.com or by calling 702-533-2691 and/or 800-780-743. You can also enroll for a consultation with me, online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com .

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Sophia

Hi dr SHER
Is it possible to still get a period without ovulating? I’m just coming off several months of back to back egg reteievals and giving my body a rest this month before I start BCP again for another egg retrieval. However, my OPK strips have failed to detect an LH surge, and my BBT has failed to rise. I’m currently CD21, whereas I used to always ovulate CD14 prior to all these IVF cycles. This is the first time since January that I haven’t been on either BCP preparing for a cycle or on stim meds. Do you think my cycles are all messed up now? I’m worried I might be going into menopause since I have DOR (was 0.6 in February 2018). I really need my period to start so I can resume BCP for my next IVF- can I start BCP without getting a period?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Yes, you can menstruate without functional ovulation. This is not uncommon after several IVF’s. I would not be overly concerned.

Geoff Sher

reply
Padme Amidala

Dear Dr Sher
I’m a 33 year old female physician with no medical co-morbidities a 42 year old husband with hypercholestrolemia, obstructive sleep apnea with a BMI of 31. We have a diagnosis of unexplained infertility after 2 years of trying to conceive. We just had a first failed IVF cycle. He did take Finasteride 1.25mg for 15 years in his 20’s and 30’s for male pattern hair loss- but has stopped now for > 3 years.
I have a normal HSG, normal pelvic usg, AFC: 5 and 9. My ovarian reserve is normal. My cycles are 36 day cycles- although long, they are fairly regular, with biochemical evidence of ovulation around d20. My husband’s basic sperm analysis is normal aside from being slightly reduced.
For this IVF protocol: Baseline Day 2 bloods were: estrogen 134, progesterone 1, LH 2, and FSH 8. The protocol used was Gonal-F 200 IU starting on D3 with the addition of Orgulatran from D6 250mcg at 5PM daily. Bloods on D 8 were estrogen 2630, progesteron 1, LH: low. Bloods on D9 were estrogen 2909, progesterone 1, LH 20mm: 1 follicle. I was asked to trigger with Ovidrel 250mcg at 1130PM on D9. Drug free on D10, Egg collection on D11 at 1130AM.
Egg collection revealed 10 eggs. 2 successful normal fertilizations, 3 immature eggs, 4 abnormal fertilization, and 1 egg with no signs of maturation. None of which reached a successful d5 blastocyst, as they arrested at D3.
I have read through your blogs and notice that the protocol used is quite different from the ones you prescribe. ( for example: you recommend Ovidrel 500mcg for triggering)
I would like to have your thoughts on :
-if the prolonged use of Finasteride can affect sperm DNA. Is there any way to test this?
– our absence of successful blastocyst
– our causes of ‘ abnormal fertilisation’
– usage of anti-oxidants: Po melatonin 3mg, co-enzyme q 10, fish oil and vitamin e
Thank you very much for your kind assistance.

reply
Nelly

I am preparing for my last embryo transfer. I had a D&E in August (16 week loss) and a MRI to confirm Adenomyosis in the beginning of September. At my baseline ultrasound last Wednesday the tech noted a possible 9x5mm fibroid with blood flow near the endometrium. Yesterdays ultrasound she noted it is now 16mm but not near the endometrium. With my MRI in September they didn’t note any fibroids. Is it possible for a fibroid to grow that quick? Should I cancel my last transfer because of it? The nurse at my clinic said it isn’t likely to be a fibroid since I just had a MRI. I wanted a second opinion before I transfer my last embryo. Thank you so much for your help.

reply
Hope

I am worried. I did frozen embryo transfer of 5 days embryos at 27/9 then first beta at 5/10 was 157

second beta at 7/10 was 473 so doubling time around 32 hr but third beta at 10/10 was 976 so doubling time increase to 69 hr I am afraid help me. Update and today 18/10 is 6190 is it good

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Older women and those who have diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) have greater difficulty in conceiving naturally or through assisted reproductive technology (ART). This is largely due to an inevitable increase in egg aneuploidy (numerical chromosome irregularity). However, although less significant than the rising increase in egg aneuploidy, advancing age and DOR are both also associated with non-chromosomal egg deterioration involving a decline in mitochondrial activity as well as a progressive reduction in the ability of the granulosa cells that line the inside of the follicle to respond to FSH stimulation.
Getting older women and those with DOR to respond optimally to ovarian stimulation often represents a serious challenge. Many will fail to respond adequately to standard ovarian stimulation regimens, requiring any individualized and strategic approach to ovarian stimulation…. one that regulates and limits exposure of ovarian follicles and eggs to LH-induced local male hormones (predominantly testosterone). This, in my opinion is best addressed by using a modified long pituitary down regulation protocol with an agonist (e.g. Lupron/Buserelin/Superfact) coming off a birth control pill. Thereupon, as soon as the period starts, the agonist is supplanted by an antagonist (e.g. Cetrotide/Orgalutron/Ganirelix) and stimulation with recombinant FSH (Follistim/Gonal-F/Puregon) along with a small amount of menotropin (e.g. Menopur) until t optimal follicle development prompts initiation of the hCG trigger. More than 15 years ago, I reported on the observation that in some women with severe DOR, the addition of intramuscular administration of estradiol valerate (i.e. Delestrogen) prior to and during gonadotropin stimulation (i.e. “estrogen priming”) is capable of further enhancing follicle growth .
More recently, researchers have shown that the administration of human growth hormone (HGH), as an adjunct to ovarian stimulation, can enhance follicle response in older women and those with DOR. Two basic mechanisms have been proposed: a) enhanced response to FSH by up-regulating the FSH receptors on follicular granulosa cells and, b) through a direct effect of HGH on the egg itself whereby mitochondrial activity is enhanced. Human eggs do have receptors to HGH but eggs retrieved from older women show decreased expression of such receptors (as well as a reduced amount of functional mitochondria. It was recently observed that some such women treated with HGH, show a marked increase in egg functional mitochondria along with improved egg quality.

Geoff sher

reply
Carla

Hi Dr Sher,

I will be 23 weeks pregnant with twins and will be traveling by plane for 7 hours. Is that ok you think?

reply
Justin

Hi Dr
I have had 2 pregnancies so far. First resulted in a late term miscarriage in week 17 and the second was a early onset severe iugr where the baby was born in week 28 with 340 grams, passed away after 4,5 months in hospital. My placenta was sent away and analyzed and found to have CHIV and the drs have said that if we decide to go through another pregnancy then i need to take 10mg predisolone, heparin, intralipid, aspirin. Do you think this is ok? We are worried that we will be faced with the same issue again especially with a severe IUGR baby.

reply
Sherry

Hi dr SHER
I researched your success rates as published on CDC website and it seems to be significantly below the national averages. I had wanted to make an appointment but was concerned about these low pregnancy success rates. Is this because you deal with difficult cases?

reply
Whitney Sweet

Hi Doc,
My husband and I are just starting our second IVF cycle. Our first one resulted in 6 embryos, but 5 were low mosaic and 1 abnormal. The clinic I go to discourages the implantation of even low mosaic, so we’re on to our second cycle with no implantation done on the first. For this cycle, they would like to add Human Growth Hormone to my medications. Is that something you recommend or have seen commonly used before? My doctor has also requested that I start taking CQ10 supplements to aid in increasing the quality of embryos we receive. Are you familiar with that?
Thanks in advance for your expert opinion!

reply
Kris

Hi Dr. Sher,
What drugs are best to use in older women with very low reserve? I have always tried menopur and have been reading that this probably isn’t helpful because of excessive LH. Are there other drugs I could try?

Thank you.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

The older a woman becomes, the more likely it is that her eggs will be chromosomally/genetically “incompetent” (not have the potential upon being fertilized and transferred, to result in a viable pregnancy). That is why, the likelihood of failure to conceive, miscarrying and of giving birth to a chromosomally defective child (e.g. with Down Syndrome) increases with the woman’s advancing age. In addition, as women age beyond 35Y there is commonly a progressive diminution in the number of eggs left in the ovaries, i.e. diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). So it is that older women as well as those who (regardless of age) have DOR have a reduced potential for IVF success. Much of this is due to the fact that such women tend to have increased production, and/or biological activity, of LH. This can result in excessive ovarian male hormone (predominantly testosterone) production. This in turn can have a deleterious effect on egg/embryo “competency”.
While it is presently not possible by any means, to reverse the age-related effect on the woman’s “biological clock, certain ovarian stimulation regimes, by promoting excessive LH production (e.g. short agonist/Lupron- “flare” protocols, clomiphene and Letrozole), can make matters worse. Similarly, the amount/dosage of certain fertility drugs that contain LH/hCG (e.g. Menopur) can have a negative effect on the development of the eggs of older women and those who have DOR and should be limited.
I try to avoid using such protocols/regimes (especially) in older women and those with DOR, favoring instead the use of the agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP), a modified, long pituitary down-regulation regime, augmented by adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). I further recommend that such women be offered access to embryo banking of PGS (next generation gene sequencing/NGS)-selected normal blastocysts, the subsequent selective transfer of which by allowing them to to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” could significantly enhance the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy
Please visit my new Blog on this very site, http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com, find the “search bar” and type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
• A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Older women and Women who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): A Rational Basis for Selecting a Stimulation Protocol
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers Should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) versus “Fresh” ET: How to Make the Decision
• Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
• Staggered IVF: An Excellent Option When. Advancing Age and Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) Reduces IVF Success Rate
• Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
• Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGS) in IVF: It Should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
• Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
• PGS in IVF: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
• PGS and Assessment of Egg/Embryo “competency”: How Method, Timing and Methodology Could Affect Reliability
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• Traveling for IVF from Out of State/Country–
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF
• Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.
• IVF Egg Donation: A Comprehensive Overview

If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my patient concierge, ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also set this up by emailing concierge@sherivf.com or by calling 702-533-2691 and/or 800-780-743. You can also enroll for a consultation with me, online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com .

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Hi Amanda,

You need to wait for the outcome before you plan for the future.

Good luck!

Geoff Sher

reply
Jyoti

Thank you Dr. Sher for your prompt reply. Would you be able to please shed some lights on the risks associated with this kind of mosaicism please? Sorry very new to this and would really want to make an informed decision. Would you recommend transferring both of them together or better to do it in two shots?

reply
Ashley childress

Dr. Sher,

My husband and I started IVF in February of this year. He is 50 and has severe male factor infertility. 0 sperm count to be exact. He was told he would never have children due to congenital testicular torsion with orichiectomy and a coloureteral fistula repair due to what he calls “wolfian duct” syndrome. He had 9 infantile surgeries and had an iliostomy until the age of 4. He has seen a renown male reproductive specialist(dr Larry lipshultz at Baylor in Houston) And performed a TESE. I’m 29 and and retrieved 24 eggs with 23 being mature. We had 4 PGS normal embryos out of 13 blasts sent and All of them were day 6 and 7. My first transfer miscarried at 5w3, followed that with an ERA and moved transfer back 24 hours. I still had a chemical on my 2nd transfer. I’ve had an HSG and hysteroscopy that we’re normal and have labs sent for thrombophillia testing. Next cycle doc says that he is going to do the EMMA test by igenomix and immunology testing.

I’ve asked my doctor if he thinks the embryos that are 4AB are failing even though they are PGS tested. He doesn’t think it can be the embryos. I’m at a loss and terrified I’ll never have a family. I have interstitial cystitis in the mild form and wonder if I could have endometriosis, but the doc seems to think it wouldn’t affect anything. I have regular cycles and they aren’t particularly painful, but can be a little bit heavy. Other than that, I’m healthy as can be and at a healthy weight.

Is there anything that we may be missing or do you think it could really be the embryos?

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Clearly, the TESE has successfully addressed the azoospermia and the fact that you have had several chromosomally normal blastocysts, suggests that this is now no longer an egg/sperm issue.ore than likely there is an implantation dysfunction that needs to be considered carefully.

Whenever a patient fails to achieve a viable pregnancy following embryo transfer (ET), the first question asked is why! Was it simply due to, bad luck?, How likely is the failure to recur in future attempts and what can be done differently, to avoid it happening next time?.
It is an indisputable fact that any IVF procedure is at least as likely to fail as it is to succeed. Thus when it comes to outcome, luck is an undeniable factor. Notwithstanding, it is incumbent upon the treating physician to carefully consider and address the causes of IVF failure before proceeding to another attempt:
1. Age: The chance of a woman under 35Y of age having a baby per embryo transfer is about 35-40%. From there it declines progressively to under 5% by the time she reaches her mid-forties. This is largely due to declining chromosomal integrity of the eggs with advancing age…”a wear and tear effect” on eggs that are in the ovaries from birth.
2. Embryo Quality/”competency (capable of propagating a viable pregnancy)”. As stated, the woman’s age plays a big role in determining egg/embryo quality/”competency”. This having been said, aside from age the protocol used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is the next most important factor. It is especially important when it comes to older women, and women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) where it becomes essential to be aggressive, and to customize and individualize the ovarian stimulation protocol.
We used to believe that the uterine environment is more beneficial to embryo development than is the incubator/petri dish and that accordingly, the earlier on in development that embryos are transferred to the uterus, the better. To achieve this goal, we used to select embryos for transfer based upon their day two or microscopic appearance (“grade”). But we have since learned that the further an embryo has advanced in its development, the more likely it is to be “competent” and that embryos failing to reach the expanded blastocyst stage within 5-6 days of being fertilized are almost invariably “incompetent” and are unworthy of being transferred. Moreover, the introduction into clinical practice about a decade ago, (by Levent Keskintepe PhD and myself) of Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS), which assesses for the presence of all the embryos chromosomes (complete chromosomal karyotyping), provides another tool by which to select the most “competent” embryos for transfer. This methodology has selective benefit when it comes to older women, women with DOR, cases of unexplained repeated IVF failure and women who experience recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).
3. The number of the embryos transferred: Most patients believe that the more embryos transferred the greater the chance of success. To some extent this might be true, but if the problem lies with the use of a suboptimal COS protocol, transferring more embryos at a time won’t improve the chance of success. Nor will the transfer of a greater number of embryos solve an underlying embryo implantation dysfunction (anatomical molecular or immunologic).Moreover, the transfer of multiple embryos, should they implant, can and all too often does result in triplets or greater (high order multiples) which increases the incidence of maternal pregnancy-induced complications and of premature delivery with its serious risks to the newborn. It is for this reason that I rarely recommend the transfer of more than 2 embryos at a time and am moving in the direction of advising single embryo transfers …especially when it comes to transferring embryos derived through the fertilization of eggs from young women.
4. Implantation Dysfunction (ID): Implantation dysfunction is a very common (often overlooked) cause of “unexplained” IVF failure. This is especially the case in young ovulating women who have normal ovarian reserve and have fertile partners. Failure to identify, typify, and address such issues is, in my opinion, an unfortunate and relatively common cause of repeated IVF failure in such women. Common sense dictates that if ultrasound guided embryo transfer is performed competently and yet repeated IVF attempts fail to propagate a viable pregnancy, implantation dysfunction must be seriously considered. Yet ID is probably the most overlooked factor. The most common causes of implantation dysfunction are:
a. A“ thin uterine lining”
b. A uterus with surface lesions in the cavity (polyps, fibroids, scar tissue)
c. Immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID)
d. Endocrine/molecular endometrial receptivity issues
Certain causes of infertility are repetitive and thus cannot readily be reversed. Examples include advanced age of the woman; severe male infertility; immunologic infertility associated with alloimmune implantation dysfunction (especially if it is a “complete DQ alpha genetic match between partners plus uterine natural killer cell activation (NKa).
I strongly recommend that you visit http://www.DrGeoffreySherIVF.com. Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

• The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
• Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
• IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS)
• The Fundamental Requirements for Achieving Optimal IVF Success
• Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
• Ovarian Stimulation in Women Who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): Introducing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion protocol
• Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
• Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
• The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
• Blastocyst Embryo Transfers should be the Standard of Care in IVF
• IVF: How Many Attempts should be considered before Stopping?
• “Unexplained” Infertility: Often a matter of the Diagnosis Being Overlooked!
• IVF Failure and Implantation Dysfunction:
• The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 1-Background
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
• Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 3-Treatment
• Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management 🙁 Case Report)
• Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
• Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; how it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
• Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
• Endometrial Thickness, Uterine Pathology and Immunologic Factors
• Vaginally Administered Viagra is Often a Highly Effective Treatment to Help Thicken a Thin Uterine Lining
• Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
• A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
• How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF?
• The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF

If you are interested in my advice or medical services, I urge you to contact my patient concierge, ASAP to set up a Skype or an in-person consultation with me. You can also set this up by emailing concierge@sherivf.com or by calling 702-533-2691 and/or 800-780-743. You can also enroll for a consultation with me, online at http://www.SherIVF.com.
Also, my book, “In Vitro Fertilization, the ART of Making Babies” is available as a down-load through http://www.Amazon.com .

Geoffrey Sher MD

reply
Amanda

Hi Dr Sher, I have had 2 fail IUI’s. So I just completed a course of Decapeptyl 100 and Menopur 300 to do ICSI. 2 days ago I did the double trigger of Pregnyl 5000 and today was egg retrieval resulting in 7 empty follicles. I am mentally exhausted and don’t know if I should try again. Any feedback would greatly be appreciated.

reply
Amanda Frohreich

I have had 2 fail IUI’s. So I just completed a course of Decapeptyl 100 and Menopur 300 to do ICSI. 2 days ago I did the double trigger of Pregnyl 5000 and today was egg retrieval resulting in 7 empty follicles. I am mentally exhausted and don’t know if I should try again. Any feedback would greatly be appreciated.

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Frequently, when following vigorous and often repeated flushing of follicles at egg retrieval they fail to yield eggs, it is ascribed to “Empty Follicle Syndrome.” This is a gross misnomer, because all follicles contain eggs. So why were no eggs retrieved from the follicles? Most likely it was because they would/could not yield the eggs they harbored.
This situation is most commonly seen in older women, women who have severely diminished ovarian reserve, and in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). In my opinion it is often preventable when an optimal, individualized and strategic protocol for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is employed and the correct timing and dosage is applied to the “hCG trigger shot.”
Normally, following optimal ovarian stimulation, the hCG “trigger shot” is given for the purpose of it triggering meiosis (reproductive division) that is intended to halve the number of chromosomes from 46 to 23 within 32-36 hours. The hCG trigger also enables the egg to signal the “cumulus cells” that bind it firmly to the inner wall of the follicle (through enzymatic activity), to loosen or disperse, so that the egg can detach and readily be captured at egg retrieval (ER).
Ordinarily, normal eggs (and even those with only one or two chromosomal irregularities) will readily detach and be captured with the very first attempt to empty a follicle. Eggs that have several chromosomal numerical abnormalities (i.e., are “complex aneuploid”) are often unable to facilitate this process. This explains why when the egg is complex aneuploid, its follicle will not yield an egg…and why, when it requires repeated flushing of a follicle to harvest an egg, it is highly suggestive of it being aneuploid and thus “incompetent” (i.e., incapable of subsequently propagating a normal embryo).
Older women, women with diminished ovarian reserve, and those with polycystic ovarian syndrome, tend to have more biologically active LH in circulation. LH causes production of male hormone (androgens, predominantly testosterone), by ovarian connective tissue (stroma/theca). A little testosterone is needed for optimal follicle development and for FSH-induced ovogenesis (egg development). Too much LH activity compromises the latter, and eggs so affected are far more likely to be aneuploid following meiosis.
Women with the above conditions have increased LH activity and are thus more likely to produce excessive ovarian testosterone. It follows that sustained, premature elevations in LH or premature luteinization (often referred to as a “premature LH surge”) will prejudice egg development. Such compromised eggs are much more likely to end up being complex aneuploid following the administration of the hCG trigger, leading to fruitless attempts at retrieval and the so called “empty follicle syndrome.”
The developing eggs of women who have increased LH activity (older women, women with diminished ovarian reserve, and those with PCOS) are inordinately vulnerable to the effects of protracted exposure to LH-induced ovarian testosterone. Because of this, the administration of medications that provoke further pituitary LH release (e.g., clomiphene and Letrozole), drugs that contain LH or hCG (e.g., Menopur), or protocols of ovarian stimulation that provoke increased exposure to the woman’s own pituitary LH (e.g., “flare-agonist protocols”) and the use of “late pituitary blockade” (antagonist) protocols can be prejudicial.
The importance of individualizing COS protocol selection, precision with regard to the dosage and type of hCG trigger used, and the timing of its administration in such cases cannot be overstated. The ideal dosage of urinary-derived hCG (hCG-u) such as Novarel, Pregnyl and Profasi is 10,000U. When recombinant DNA-derived hCG (hCG-r) such as Ovidrel is used, the optimal dosage is 500mcg. A lower dosage of hCG can, by compromising meiosis, increase the risk of egg aneuploidy, and thus of IVF outcome.
There is in my opinion no such condition as “Empty Follicle Syndrome.” All follicles contain eggs. Failure to access those eggs at ER can often be a result of the protocol used for controlled ovarian stimulation.

Call 800-780-7437 for a Skype consultation with me if you wish.

Geoff Sher

reply
Amanda

Hi Dr Sher,
I am 43 so do you think I should give it another try and do I need to use different medications.

reply
Sara

Hi Dr. Sher

I would like to conceive and have waited 4 years for a baby and still trying. My RE told me to take 500mg metformin every night for my pcos. I just want to ask is metformin safe for me to take in long term run without having diabetes? Is it safe for my health and if I stop will there be any adverse side effects?

Also do you think high cholesterol might be the cause of infertility? Appreciate your advice. Thanks

reply
Dr. Geoffrey Sher

I believe that if taken for a valid indication Metformin will do no harm…nor should an elevated cholesterol affect fertility.

Geoff Sher

reply
Jyoti

Dear Dr. Sher,

Thank you for your blog, it has lots of information for the newbies to IVF like me.

My husband and I are 35 and just completed our first round of IVF with PGS. We found out today that one is a normal 4AA (morphokinetic=A ) day 6 hatching blastocyst and another 4BB (morphokinetic=B ) day 6 hatching blastocyst with mosaic loss (30ML) in chromosome 20. Would you recommend transferring the mosaic embryo with the normal one? If yes, would it affect the chances of the normal one? Would you recommend transferring the mosaic alone, would it stand a good chance of normal live birth?

Sincerely appreciate your advice.

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

Yes I would, and in my opinion, this would not prejudice the chance of the euploid one taking.

Good luck!

Geoff Sher

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O. sahin

Hi Dr sher
Which pair do you prefer to transfer
4aa and 3bb 5dayblast embryo or 6a and 2bc 6dayblaat embryos

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Dr. Geoffrey Sher

All 4 are worthy of transfer but I would give preference to the day-5 blasts!

Geoff Sher

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